aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
Diffstat (limited to 'etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py')
-rw-r--r--etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py3736
1 files changed, 3736 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py b/etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..535ddd3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/etisnoop-stat-server/bottle.py
@@ -0,0 +1,3736 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env python
+# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
+"""
+Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
+offers request dispatching (Routes) with url parameter support, templates,
+a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
+template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
+Python Standard Library.
+
+Homepage and documentation: http://bottlepy.org/
+
+Copyright (c) 2013, Marcel Hellkamp.
+License: MIT (see LICENSE for details)
+"""
+
+from __future__ import with_statement
+
+__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
+__version__ = '0.12.8'
+__license__ = 'MIT'
+
+# The gevent server adapter needs to patch some modules before they are imported
+# This is why we parse the commandline parameters here but handle them later
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+ from optparse import OptionParser
+ _cmd_parser = OptionParser(usage="usage: %prog [options] package.module:app")
+ _opt = _cmd_parser.add_option
+ _opt("--version", action="store_true", help="show version number.")
+ _opt("-b", "--bind", metavar="ADDRESS", help="bind socket to ADDRESS.")
+ _opt("-s", "--server", default='wsgiref', help="use SERVER as backend.")
+ _opt("-p", "--plugin", action="append", help="install additional plugin/s.")
+ _opt("--debug", action="store_true", help="start server in debug mode.")
+ _opt("--reload", action="store_true", help="auto-reload on file changes.")
+ _cmd_options, _cmd_args = _cmd_parser.parse_args()
+ if _cmd_options.server and _cmd_options.server.startswith('gevent'):
+ import gevent.monkey; gevent.monkey.patch_all()
+
+import base64, cgi, email.utils, functools, hmac, imp, itertools, mimetypes,\
+ os, re, subprocess, sys, tempfile, threading, time, warnings
+
+from datetime import date as datedate, datetime, timedelta
+from tempfile import TemporaryFile
+from traceback import format_exc, print_exc
+from inspect import getargspec
+from unicodedata import normalize
+
+
+try: from simplejson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ try: from json import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
+ except ImportError:
+ try: from django.utils.simplejson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
+ except ImportError:
+ def json_dumps(data):
+ raise ImportError("JSON support requires Python 2.6 or simplejson.")
+ json_lds = json_dumps
+
+
+
+# We now try to fix 2.5/2.6/3.1/3.2 incompatibilities.
+# It ain't pretty but it works... Sorry for the mess.
+
+py = sys.version_info
+py3k = py >= (3, 0, 0)
+py25 = py < (2, 6, 0)
+py31 = (3, 1, 0) <= py < (3, 2, 0)
+
+# Workaround for the missing "as" keyword in py3k.
+def _e(): return sys.exc_info()[1]
+
+# Workaround for the "print is a keyword/function" Python 2/3 dilemma
+# and a fallback for mod_wsgi (resticts stdout/err attribute access)
+try:
+ _stdout, _stderr = sys.stdout.write, sys.stderr.write
+except IOError:
+ _stdout = lambda x: sys.stdout.write(x)
+ _stderr = lambda x: sys.stderr.write(x)
+
+# Lots of stdlib and builtin differences.
+if py3k:
+ import http.client as httplib
+ import _thread as thread
+ from urllib.parse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
+ from urllib.parse import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
+ urlunquote = functools.partial(urlunquote, encoding='latin1')
+ from http.cookies import SimpleCookie
+ from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
+ import pickle
+ from io import BytesIO
+ from configparser import ConfigParser
+ basestring = str
+ unicode = str
+ json_loads = lambda s: json_lds(touni(s))
+ callable = lambda x: hasattr(x, '__call__')
+ imap = map
+ def _raise(*a): raise a[0](a[1]).with_traceback(a[2])
+else: # 2.x
+ import httplib
+ import thread
+ from urlparse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
+ from urllib import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
+ from Cookie import SimpleCookie
+ from itertools import imap
+ import cPickle as pickle
+ from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
+ from ConfigParser import SafeConfigParser as ConfigParser
+ if py25:
+ msg = "Python 2.5 support may be dropped in future versions of Bottle."
+ warnings.warn(msg, DeprecationWarning)
+ from UserDict import DictMixin
+ def next(it): return it.next()
+ bytes = str
+ else: # 2.6, 2.7
+ from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
+ unicode = unicode
+ json_loads = json_lds
+ eval(compile('def _raise(*a): raise a[0], a[1], a[2]', '<py3fix>', 'exec'))
+
+# Some helpers for string/byte handling
+def tob(s, enc='utf8'):
+ return s.encode(enc) if isinstance(s, unicode) else bytes(s)
+def touni(s, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
+ return s.decode(enc, err) if isinstance(s, bytes) else unicode(s)
+tonat = touni if py3k else tob
+
+# 3.2 fixes cgi.FieldStorage to accept bytes (which makes a lot of sense).
+# 3.1 needs a workaround.
+if py31:
+ from io import TextIOWrapper
+ class NCTextIOWrapper(TextIOWrapper):
+ def close(self): pass # Keep wrapped buffer open.
+
+
+# A bug in functools causes it to break if the wrapper is an instance method
+def update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka):
+ try: functools.update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka)
+ except AttributeError: pass
+
+
+
+# These helpers are used at module level and need to be defined first.
+# And yes, I know PEP-8, but sometimes a lower-case classname makes more sense.
+
+def depr(message, hard=False):
+ warnings.warn(message, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)
+
+def makelist(data): # This is just to handy
+ if isinstance(data, (tuple, list, set, dict)): return list(data)
+ elif data: return [data]
+ else: return []
+
+
+class DictProperty(object):
+ ''' Property that maps to a key in a local dict-like attribute. '''
+ def __init__(self, attr, key=None, read_only=False):
+ self.attr, self.key, self.read_only = attr, key, read_only
+
+ def __call__(self, func):
+ functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
+ self.getter, self.key = func, self.key or func.__name__
+ return self
+
+ def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+ if obj is None: return self
+ key, storage = self.key, getattr(obj, self.attr)
+ if key not in storage: storage[key] = self.getter(obj)
+ return storage[key]
+
+ def __set__(self, obj, value):
+ if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
+ getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key] = value
+
+ def __delete__(self, obj):
+ if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
+ del getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key]
+
+
+class cached_property(object):
+ ''' A property that is only computed once per instance and then replaces
+ itself with an ordinary attribute. Deleting the attribute resets the
+ property. '''
+
+ def __init__(self, func):
+ self.__doc__ = getattr(func, '__doc__')
+ self.func = func
+
+ def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+ if obj is None: return self
+ value = obj.__dict__[self.func.__name__] = self.func(obj)
+ return value
+
+
+class lazy_attribute(object):
+ ''' A property that caches itself to the class object. '''
+ def __init__(self, func):
+ functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
+ self.getter = func
+
+ def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+ value = self.getter(cls)
+ setattr(cls, self.__name__, value)
+ return value
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Exceptions and Events ########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class BottleException(Exception):
+ """ A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
+ pass
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Routing ######################################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class RouteError(BottleException):
+ """ This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
+
+
+class RouteReset(BottleException):
+ """ If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all
+ plugins are re-applied. """
+
+class RouterUnknownModeError(RouteError): pass
+
+
+class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
+ """ The route parser found something not supported by this router. """
+
+
+class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
+ """ The route could not be built. """
+
+
+def _re_flatten(p):
+ ''' Turn all capturing groups in a regular expression pattern into
+ non-capturing groups. '''
+ if '(' not in p: return p
+ return re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]+>|\((?!\?))',
+ lambda m: m.group(0) if len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:', p)
+
+
+class Router(object):
+ ''' A Router is an ordered collection of route->target pairs. It is used to
+ efficiently match WSGI requests against a number of routes and return
+ the first target that satisfies the request. The target may be anything,
+ usually a string, ID or callable object. A route consists of a path-rule
+ and a HTTP method.
+
+ The path-rule is either a static path (e.g. `/contact`) or a dynamic
+ path that contains wildcards (e.g. `/wiki/<page>`). The wildcard syntax
+ and details on the matching order are described in docs:`routing`.
+ '''
+
+ default_pattern = '[^/]+'
+ default_filter = 're'
+
+ #: The current CPython regexp implementation does not allow more
+ #: than 99 matching groups per regular expression.
+ _MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN = 99
+
+ def __init__(self, strict=False):
+ self.rules = [] # All rules in order
+ self._groups = {} # index of regexes to find them in dyna_routes
+ self.builder = {} # Data structure for the url builder
+ self.static = {} # Search structure for static routes
+ self.dyna_routes = {}
+ self.dyna_regexes = {} # Search structure for dynamic routes
+ #: If true, static routes are no longer checked first.
+ self.strict_order = strict
+ self.filters = {
+ 're': lambda conf:
+ (_re_flatten(conf or self.default_pattern), None, None),
+ 'int': lambda conf: (r'-?\d+', int, lambda x: str(int(x))),
+ 'float': lambda conf: (r'-?[\d.]+', float, lambda x: str(float(x))),
+ 'path': lambda conf: (r'.+?', None, None)}
+
+ def add_filter(self, name, func):
+ ''' Add a filter. The provided function is called with the configuration
+ string as parameter and must return a (regexp, to_python, to_url) tuple.
+ The first element is a string, the last two are callables or None. '''
+ self.filters[name] = func
+
+ rule_syntax = re.compile('(\\\\*)'\
+ '(?:(?::([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?()(?:#(.*?)#)?)'\
+ '|(?:<([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?(?::([a-zA-Z_]*)'\
+ '(?::((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\>]+)+)?)?)?>))')
+
+ def _itertokens(self, rule):
+ offset, prefix = 0, ''
+ for match in self.rule_syntax.finditer(rule):
+ prefix += rule[offset:match.start()]
+ g = match.groups()
+ if len(g[0])%2: # Escaped wildcard
+ prefix += match.group(0)[len(g[0]):]
+ offset = match.end()
+ continue
+ if prefix:
+ yield prefix, None, None
+ name, filtr, conf = g[4:7] if g[2] is None else g[1:4]
+ yield name, filtr or 'default', conf or None
+ offset, prefix = match.end(), ''
+ if offset <= len(rule) or prefix:
+ yield prefix+rule[offset:], None, None
+
+ def add(self, rule, method, target, name=None):
+ ''' Add a new rule or replace the target for an existing rule. '''
+ anons = 0 # Number of anonymous wildcards found
+ keys = [] # Names of keys
+ pattern = '' # Regular expression pattern with named groups
+ filters = [] # Lists of wildcard input filters
+ builder = [] # Data structure for the URL builder
+ is_static = True
+
+ for key, mode, conf in self._itertokens(rule):
+ if mode:
+ is_static = False
+ if mode == 'default': mode = self.default_filter
+ mask, in_filter, out_filter = self.filters[mode](conf)
+ if not key:
+ pattern += '(?:%s)' % mask
+ key = 'anon%d' % anons
+ anons += 1
+ else:
+ pattern += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (key, mask)
+ keys.append(key)
+ if in_filter: filters.append((key, in_filter))
+ builder.append((key, out_filter or str))
+ elif key:
+ pattern += re.escape(key)
+ builder.append((None, key))
+
+ self.builder[rule] = builder
+ if name: self.builder[name] = builder
+
+ if is_static and not self.strict_order:
+ self.static.setdefault(method, {})
+ self.static[method][self.build(rule)] = (target, None)
+ return
+
+ try:
+ re_pattern = re.compile('^(%s)$' % pattern)
+ re_match = re_pattern.match
+ except re.error:
+ raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (rule, _e()))
+
+ if filters:
+ def getargs(path):
+ url_args = re_match(path).groupdict()
+ for name, wildcard_filter in filters:
+ try:
+ url_args[name] = wildcard_filter(url_args[name])
+ except ValueError:
+ raise HTTPError(400, 'Path has wrong format.')
+ return url_args
+ elif re_pattern.groupindex:
+ def getargs(path):
+ return re_match(path).groupdict()
+ else:
+ getargs = None
+
+ flatpat = _re_flatten(pattern)
+ whole_rule = (rule, flatpat, target, getargs)
+
+ if (flatpat, method) in self._groups:
+ if DEBUG:
+ msg = 'Route <%s %s> overwrites a previously defined route'
+ warnings.warn(msg % (method, rule), RuntimeWarning)
+ self.dyna_routes[method][self._groups[flatpat, method]] = whole_rule
+ else:
+ self.dyna_routes.setdefault(method, []).append(whole_rule)
+ self._groups[flatpat, method] = len(self.dyna_routes[method]) - 1
+
+ self._compile(method)
+
+ def _compile(self, method):
+ all_rules = self.dyna_routes[method]
+ comborules = self.dyna_regexes[method] = []
+ maxgroups = self._MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN
+ for x in range(0, len(all_rules), maxgroups):
+ some = all_rules[x:x+maxgroups]
+ combined = (flatpat for (_, flatpat, _, _) in some)
+ combined = '|'.join('(^%s$)' % flatpat for flatpat in combined)
+ combined = re.compile(combined).match
+ rules = [(target, getargs) for (_, _, target, getargs) in some]
+ comborules.append((combined, rules))
+
+ def build(self, _name, *anons, **query):
+ ''' Build an URL by filling the wildcards in a rule. '''
+ builder = self.builder.get(_name)
+ if not builder: raise RouteBuildError("No route with that name.", _name)
+ try:
+ for i, value in enumerate(anons): query['anon%d'%i] = value
+ url = ''.join([f(query.pop(n)) if n else f for (n,f) in builder])
+ return url if not query else url+'?'+urlencode(query)
+ except KeyError:
+ raise RouteBuildError('Missing URL argument: %r' % _e().args[0])
+
+ def match(self, environ):
+ ''' Return a (target, url_agrs) tuple or raise HTTPError(400/404/405). '''
+ verb = environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper()
+ path = environ['PATH_INFO'] or '/'
+ target = None
+ if verb == 'HEAD':
+ methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'GET', 'ANY']
+ else:
+ methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'ANY']
+
+ for method in methods:
+ if method in self.static and path in self.static[method]:
+ target, getargs = self.static[method][path]
+ return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
+ elif method in self.dyna_regexes:
+ for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
+ match = combined(path)
+ if match:
+ target, getargs = rules[match.lastindex - 1]
+ return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
+
+ # No matching route found. Collect alternative methods for 405 response
+ allowed = set([])
+ nocheck = set(methods)
+ for method in set(self.static) - nocheck:
+ if path in self.static[method]:
+ allowed.add(verb)
+ for method in set(self.dyna_regexes) - allowed - nocheck:
+ for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
+ match = combined(path)
+ if match:
+ allowed.add(method)
+ if allowed:
+ allow_header = ",".join(sorted(allowed))
+ raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.", Allow=allow_header)
+
+ # No matching route and no alternative method found. We give up
+ raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + repr(path))
+
+
+
+
+
+
+class Route(object):
+ ''' This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and
+ configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for
+ turing an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router.
+ '''
+
+ def __init__(self, app, rule, method, callback, name=None,
+ plugins=None, skiplist=None, **config):
+ #: The application this route is installed to.
+ self.app = app
+ #: The path-rule string (e.g. ``/wiki/:page``).
+ self.rule = rule
+ #: The HTTP method as a string (e.g. ``GET``).
+ self.method = method
+ #: The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection.
+ self.callback = callback
+ #: The name of the route (if specified) or ``None``.
+ self.name = name or None
+ #: A list of route-specific plugins (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
+ self.plugins = plugins or []
+ #: A list of plugins to not apply to this route (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
+ self.skiplist = skiplist or []
+ #: Additional keyword arguments passed to the :meth:`Bottle.route`
+ #: decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific
+ #: plugin configuration and meta-data.
+ self.config = ConfigDict().load_dict(config, make_namespaces=True)
+
+ def __call__(self, *a, **ka):
+ depr("Some APIs changed to return Route() instances instead of"\
+ " callables. Make sure to use the Route.call method and not to"\
+ " call Route instances directly.") #0.12
+ return self.call(*a, **ka)
+
+ @cached_property
+ def call(self):
+ ''' The route callback with all plugins applied. This property is
+ created on demand and then cached to speed up subsequent requests.'''
+ return self._make_callback()
+
+ def reset(self):
+ ''' Forget any cached values. The next time :attr:`call` is accessed,
+ all plugins are re-applied. '''
+ self.__dict__.pop('call', None)
+
+ def prepare(self):
+ ''' Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging).'''
+ self.call
+
+ @property
+ def _context(self):
+ depr('Switch to Plugin API v2 and access the Route object directly.') #0.12
+ return dict(rule=self.rule, method=self.method, callback=self.callback,
+ name=self.name, app=self.app, config=self.config,
+ apply=self.plugins, skip=self.skiplist)
+
+ def all_plugins(self):
+ ''' Yield all Plugins affecting this route. '''
+ unique = set()
+ for p in reversed(self.app.plugins + self.plugins):
+ if True in self.skiplist: break
+ name = getattr(p, 'name', False)
+ if name and (name in self.skiplist or name in unique): continue
+ if p in self.skiplist or type(p) in self.skiplist: continue
+ if name: unique.add(name)
+ yield p
+
+ def _make_callback(self):
+ callback = self.callback
+ for plugin in self.all_plugins():
+ try:
+ if hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
+ api = getattr(plugin, 'api', 1)
+ context = self if api > 1 else self._context
+ callback = plugin.apply(callback, context)
+ else:
+ callback = plugin(callback)
+ except RouteReset: # Try again with changed configuration.
+ return self._make_callback()
+ if not callback is self.callback:
+ update_wrapper(callback, self.callback)
+ return callback
+
+ def get_undecorated_callback(self):
+ ''' Return the callback. If the callback is a decorated function, try to
+ recover the original function. '''
+ func = self.callback
+ func = getattr(func, '__func__' if py3k else 'im_func', func)
+ closure_attr = '__closure__' if py3k else 'func_closure'
+ while hasattr(func, closure_attr) and getattr(func, closure_attr):
+ func = getattr(func, closure_attr)[0].cell_contents
+ return func
+
+ def get_callback_args(self):
+ ''' Return a list of argument names the callback (most likely) accepts
+ as keyword arguments. If the callback is a decorated function, try
+ to recover the original function before inspection. '''
+ return getargspec(self.get_undecorated_callback())[0]
+
+ def get_config(self, key, default=None):
+ ''' Lookup a config field and return its value, first checking the
+ route.config, then route.app.config.'''
+ for conf in (self.config, self.app.conifg):
+ if key in conf: return conf[key]
+ return default
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ cb = self.get_undecorated_callback()
+ return '<%s %r %r>' % (self.method, self.rule, cb)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Object ###########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class Bottle(object):
+ """ Each Bottle object represents a single, distinct web application and
+ consists of routes, callbacks, plugins, resources and configuration.
+ Instances are callable WSGI applications.
+
+ :param catchall: If true (default), handle all exceptions. Turn off to
+ let debugging middleware handle exceptions.
+ """
+
+ def __init__(self, catchall=True, autojson=True):
+
+ #: A :class:`ConfigDict` for app specific configuration.
+ self.config = ConfigDict()
+ self.config._on_change = functools.partial(self.trigger_hook, 'config')
+ self.config.meta_set('autojson', 'validate', bool)
+ self.config.meta_set('catchall', 'validate', bool)
+ self.config['catchall'] = catchall
+ self.config['autojson'] = autojson
+
+ #: A :class:`ResourceManager` for application files
+ self.resources = ResourceManager()
+
+ self.routes = [] # List of installed :class:`Route` instances.
+ self.router = Router() # Maps requests to :class:`Route` instances.
+ self.error_handler = {}
+
+ # Core plugins
+ self.plugins = [] # List of installed plugins.
+ if self.config['autojson']:
+ self.install(JSONPlugin())
+ self.install(TemplatePlugin())
+
+ #: If true, most exceptions are caught and returned as :exc:`HTTPError`
+ catchall = DictProperty('config', 'catchall')
+
+ __hook_names = 'before_request', 'after_request', 'app_reset', 'config'
+ __hook_reversed = 'after_request'
+
+ @cached_property
+ def _hooks(self):
+ return dict((name, []) for name in self.__hook_names)
+
+ def add_hook(self, name, func):
+ ''' Attach a callback to a hook. Three hooks are currently implemented:
+
+ before_request
+ Executed once before each request. The request context is
+ available, but no routing has happened yet.
+ after_request
+ Executed once after each request regardless of its outcome.
+ app_reset
+ Called whenever :meth:`Bottle.reset` is called.
+ '''
+ if name in self.__hook_reversed:
+ self._hooks[name].insert(0, func)
+ else:
+ self._hooks[name].append(func)
+
+ def remove_hook(self, name, func):
+ ''' Remove a callback from a hook. '''
+ if name in self._hooks and func in self._hooks[name]:
+ self._hooks[name].remove(func)
+ return True
+
+ def trigger_hook(self, __name, *args, **kwargs):
+ ''' Trigger a hook and return a list of results. '''
+ return [hook(*args, **kwargs) for hook in self._hooks[__name][:]]
+
+ def hook(self, name):
+ """ Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. See
+ :meth:`add_hook` for details."""
+ def decorator(func):
+ self.add_hook(name, func)
+ return func
+ return decorator
+
+ def mount(self, prefix, app, **options):
+ ''' Mount an application (:class:`Bottle` or plain WSGI) to a specific
+ URL prefix. Example::
+
+ root_app.mount('/admin/', admin_app)
+
+ :param prefix: path prefix or `mount-point`. If it ends in a slash,
+ that slash is mandatory.
+ :param app: an instance of :class:`Bottle` or a WSGI application.
+
+ All other parameters are passed to the underlying :meth:`route` call.
+ '''
+ if isinstance(app, basestring):
+ depr('Parameter order of Bottle.mount() changed.', True) # 0.10
+
+ segments = [p for p in prefix.split('/') if p]
+ if not segments: raise ValueError('Empty path prefix.')
+ path_depth = len(segments)
+
+ def mountpoint_wrapper():
+ try:
+ request.path_shift(path_depth)
+ rs = HTTPResponse([])
+ def start_response(status, headerlist, exc_info=None):
+ if exc_info:
+ try:
+ _raise(*exc_info)
+ finally:
+ exc_info = None
+ rs.status = status
+ for name, value in headerlist: rs.add_header(name, value)
+ return rs.body.append
+ body = app(request.environ, start_response)
+ if body and rs.body: body = itertools.chain(rs.body, body)
+ rs.body = body or rs.body
+ return rs
+ finally:
+ request.path_shift(-path_depth)
+
+ options.setdefault('skip', True)
+ options.setdefault('method', 'PROXY')
+ options.setdefault('mountpoint', {'prefix': prefix, 'target': app})
+ options['callback'] = mountpoint_wrapper
+
+ self.route('/%s/<:re:.*>' % '/'.join(segments), **options)
+ if not prefix.endswith('/'):
+ self.route('/' + '/'.join(segments), **options)
+
+ def merge(self, routes):
+ ''' Merge the routes of another :class:`Bottle` application or a list of
+ :class:`Route` objects into this application. The routes keep their
+ 'owner', meaning that the :data:`Route.app` attribute is not
+ changed. '''
+ if isinstance(routes, Bottle):
+ routes = routes.routes
+ for route in routes:
+ self.add_route(route)
+
+ def install(self, plugin):
+ ''' Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being
+ applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple
+ decorator or an object that implements the :class:`Plugin` API.
+ '''
+ if hasattr(plugin, 'setup'): plugin.setup(self)
+ if not callable(plugin) and not hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
+ raise TypeError("Plugins must be callable or implement .apply()")
+ self.plugins.append(plugin)
+ self.reset()
+ return plugin
+
+ def uninstall(self, plugin):
+ ''' Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type
+ object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove
+ all plugins with a matching ``name`` attribute or ``True`` to remove all
+ plugins. Return the list of removed plugins. '''
+ removed, remove = [], plugin
+ for i, plugin in list(enumerate(self.plugins))[::-1]:
+ if remove is True or remove is plugin or remove is type(plugin) \
+ or getattr(plugin, 'name', True) == remove:
+ removed.append(plugin)
+ del self.plugins[i]
+ if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
+ if removed: self.reset()
+ return removed
+
+ def reset(self, route=None):
+ ''' Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all
+ caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route
+ is affected. '''
+ if route is None: routes = self.routes
+ elif isinstance(route, Route): routes = [route]
+ else: routes = [self.routes[route]]
+ for route in routes: route.reset()
+ if DEBUG:
+ for route in routes: route.prepare()
+ self.trigger_hook('app_reset')
+
+ def close(self):
+ ''' Close the application and all installed plugins. '''
+ for plugin in self.plugins:
+ if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
+ self.stopped = True
+
+ def run(self, **kwargs):
+ ''' Calls :func:`run` with the same parameters. '''
+ run(self, **kwargs)
+
+ def match(self, environ):
+ """ Search for a matching route and return a (:class:`Route` , urlargs)
+ tuple. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted
+ from the URL. Raise :exc:`HTTPError` (404/405) on a non-match."""
+ return self.router.match(environ)
+
+ def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
+ """ Return a string that matches a named route """
+ scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/'
+ location = self.router.build(routename, **kargs).lstrip('/')
+ return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
+
+ def add_route(self, route):
+ ''' Add a route object, but do not change the :data:`Route.app`
+ attribute.'''
+ self.routes.append(route)
+ self.router.add(route.rule, route.method, route, name=route.name)
+ if DEBUG: route.prepare()
+
+ def route(self, path=None, method='GET', callback=None, name=None,
+ apply=None, skip=None, **config):
+ """ A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example::
+
+ @app.route('/hello/:name')
+ def hello(name):
+ return 'Hello %s' % name
+
+ The ``:name`` part is a wildcard. See :class:`Router` for syntax
+ details.
+
+ :param path: Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no
+ path is specified, it is automatically generated from the
+ signature of the function.
+ :param method: HTTP method (`GET`, `POST`, `PUT`, ...) or a list of
+ methods to listen to. (default: `GET`)
+ :param callback: An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator
+ syntax. ``route(..., callback=func)`` equals ``route(...)(func)``
+ :param name: The name for this route. (default: None)
+ :param apply: A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are
+ applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins.
+ :param skip: A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching
+ plugins are not installed to this route. ``True`` skips all.
+
+ Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific
+ configuration and passed to plugins (see :meth:`Plugin.apply`).
+ """
+ if callable(path): path, callback = None, path
+ plugins = makelist(apply)
+ skiplist = makelist(skip)
+ def decorator(callback):
+ # TODO: Documentation and tests
+ if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback)
+ for rule in makelist(path) or yieldroutes(callback):
+ for verb in makelist(method):
+ verb = verb.upper()
+ route = Route(self, rule, verb, callback, name=name,
+ plugins=plugins, skiplist=skiplist, **config)
+ self.add_route(route)
+ return callback
+ return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
+
+ def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **options):
+ """ Equals :meth:`route`. """
+ return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+ def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **options):
+ """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``POST`` method parameter. """
+ return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+ def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **options):
+ """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PUT`` method parameter. """
+ return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+ def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **options):
+ """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``DELETE`` method parameter. """
+ return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+ def error(self, code=500):
+ """ Decorator: Register an output handler for a HTTP error code"""
+ def wrapper(handler):
+ self.error_handler[int(code)] = handler
+ return handler
+ return wrapper
+
+ def default_error_handler(self, res):
+ return tob(template(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE, e=res))
+
+ def _handle(self, environ):
+ path = environ['bottle.raw_path'] = environ['PATH_INFO']
+ if py3k:
+ try:
+ environ['PATH_INFO'] = path.encode('latin1').decode('utf8')
+ except UnicodeError:
+ return HTTPError(400, 'Invalid path string. Expected UTF-8')
+
+ try:
+ environ['bottle.app'] = self
+ request.bind(environ)
+ response.bind()
+ try:
+ self.trigger_hook('before_request')
+ route, args = self.router.match(environ)
+ environ['route.handle'] = route
+ environ['bottle.route'] = route
+ environ['route.url_args'] = args
+ return route.call(**args)
+ finally:
+ self.trigger_hook('after_request')
+
+ except HTTPResponse:
+ return _e()
+ except RouteReset:
+ route.reset()
+ return self._handle(environ)
+ except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+ raise
+ except Exception:
+ if not self.catchall: raise
+ stacktrace = format_exc()
+ environ['wsgi.errors'].write(stacktrace)
+ return HTTPError(500, "Internal Server Error", _e(), stacktrace)
+
+ def _cast(self, out, peek=None):
+ """ Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
+ correct HTTP headers when possible.
+ Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
+ iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
+ """
+
+ # Empty output is done here
+ if not out:
+ if 'Content-Length' not in response:
+ response['Content-Length'] = 0
+ return []
+ # Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
+ if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\
+ and isinstance(out[0], (bytes, unicode)):
+ out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
+ # Encode unicode strings
+ if isinstance(out, unicode):
+ out = out.encode(response.charset)
+ # Byte Strings are just returned
+ if isinstance(out, bytes):
+ if 'Content-Length' not in response:
+ response['Content-Length'] = len(out)
+ return [out]
+ # HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
+ # TODO: Handle these explicitly in handle() or make them iterable.
+ if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
+ out.apply(response)
+ out = self.error_handler.get(out.status_code, self.default_error_handler)(out)
+ return self._cast(out)
+ if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
+ out.apply(response)
+ return self._cast(out.body)
+
+ # File-like objects.
+ if hasattr(out, 'read'):
+ if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
+ return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out)
+ elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'):
+ return WSGIFileWrapper(out)
+
+ # Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
+ try:
+ iout = iter(out)
+ first = next(iout)
+ while not first:
+ first = next(iout)
+ except StopIteration:
+ return self._cast('')
+ except HTTPResponse:
+ first = _e()
+ except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+ raise
+ except Exception:
+ if not self.catchall: raise
+ first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', _e(), format_exc())
+
+ # These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
+ if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
+ return self._cast(first)
+ elif isinstance(first, bytes):
+ new_iter = itertools.chain([first], iout)
+ elif isinstance(first, unicode):
+ encoder = lambda x: x.encode(response.charset)
+ new_iter = imap(encoder, itertools.chain([first], iout))
+ else:
+ msg = 'Unsupported response type: %s' % type(first)
+ return self._cast(HTTPError(500, msg))
+ if hasattr(out, 'close'):
+ new_iter = _closeiter(new_iter, out.close)
+ return new_iter
+
+ def wsgi(self, environ, start_response):
+ """ The bottle WSGI-interface. """
+ try:
+ out = self._cast(self._handle(environ))
+ # rfc2616 section 4.3
+ if response._status_code in (100, 101, 204, 304)\
+ or environ['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD':
+ if hasattr(out, 'close'): out.close()
+ out = []
+ start_response(response._status_line, response.headerlist)
+ return out
+ except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+ raise
+ except Exception:
+ if not self.catchall: raise
+ err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
+ % html_escape(environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/'))
+ if DEBUG:
+ err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
+ '<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
+ % (html_escape(repr(_e())), html_escape(format_exc()))
+ environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err)
+ headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html; charset=UTF-8')]
+ start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', headers, sys.exc_info())
+ return [tob(err)]
+
+ def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
+ ''' Each instance of :class:'Bottle' is a WSGI application. '''
+ return self.wsgi(environ, start_response)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# HTTP and WSGI Tools ##########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+class BaseRequest(object):
+ """ A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of
+ convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only.
+
+ Adding new attributes to a request actually adds them to the environ
+ dictionary (as 'bottle.request.ext.<name>'). This is the recommended
+ way to store and access request-specific data.
+ """
+
+ __slots__ = ('environ')
+
+ #: Maximum size of memory buffer for :attr:`body` in bytes.
+ MEMFILE_MAX = 102400
+
+ def __init__(self, environ=None):
+ """ Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary. """
+ #: The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute.
+ #: All other attributes actually are read-only properties.
+ self.environ = {} if environ is None else environ
+ self.environ['bottle.request'] = self
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.app', read_only=True)
+ def app(self):
+ ''' Bottle application handling this request. '''
+ raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to an application.')
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.route', read_only=True)
+ def route(self):
+ """ The bottle :class:`Route` object that matches this request. """
+ raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'route.url_args', read_only=True)
+ def url_args(self):
+ """ The arguments extracted from the URL. """
+ raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
+
+ @property
+ def path(self):
+ ''' The value of ``PATH_INFO`` with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix
+ broken clients and avoid the "empty path" edge case). '''
+ return '/' + self.environ.get('PATH_INFO','').lstrip('/')
+
+ @property
+ def method(self):
+ ''' The ``REQUEST_METHOD`` value as an uppercase string. '''
+ return self.environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.headers', read_only=True)
+ def headers(self):
+ ''' A :class:`WSGIHeaderDict` that provides case-insensitive access to
+ HTTP request headers. '''
+ return WSGIHeaderDict(self.environ)
+
+ def get_header(self, name, default=None):
+ ''' Return the value of a request header, or a given default value. '''
+ return self.headers.get(name, default)
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.cookies', read_only=True)
+ def cookies(self):
+ """ Cookies parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. Signed cookies are NOT
+ decoded. Use :meth:`get_cookie` if you expect signed cookies. """
+ cookies = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE','')).values()
+ return FormsDict((c.key, c.value) for c in cookies)
+
+ def get_cookie(self, key, default=None, secret=None):
+ """ Return the content of a cookie. To read a `Signed Cookie`, the
+ `secret` must match the one used to create the cookie (see
+ :meth:`BaseResponse.set_cookie`). If anything goes wrong (missing
+ cookie or wrong signature), return a default value. """
+ value = self.cookies.get(key)
+ if secret and value:
+ dec = cookie_decode(value, secret) # (key, value) tuple or None
+ return dec[1] if dec and dec[0] == key else default
+ return value or default
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.query', read_only=True)
+ def query(self):
+ ''' The :attr:`query_string` parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. These
+ values are sometimes called "URL arguments" or "GET parameters", but
+ not to be confused with "URL wildcards" as they are provided by the
+ :class:`Router`. '''
+ get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = FormsDict()
+ pairs = _parse_qsl(self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', ''))
+ for key, value in pairs:
+ get[key] = value
+ return get
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.forms', read_only=True)
+ def forms(self):
+ """ Form values parsed from an `url-encoded` or `multipart/form-data`
+ encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is returned as a
+ :class:`FormsDict`. All keys and values are strings. File uploads
+ are stored separately in :attr:`files`. """
+ forms = FormsDict()
+ for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
+ if not isinstance(item, FileUpload):
+ forms[name] = item
+ return forms
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.params', read_only=True)
+ def params(self):
+ """ A :class:`FormsDict` with the combined values of :attr:`query` and
+ :attr:`forms`. File uploads are stored in :attr:`files`. """
+ params = FormsDict()
+ for key, value in self.query.allitems():
+ params[key] = value
+ for key, value in self.forms.allitems():
+ params[key] = value
+ return params
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.files', read_only=True)
+ def files(self):
+ """ File uploads parsed from `multipart/form-data` encoded POST or PUT
+ request body. The values are instances of :class:`FileUpload`.
+
+ """
+ files = FormsDict()
+ for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
+ if isinstance(item, FileUpload):
+ files[name] = item
+ return files
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.json', read_only=True)
+ def json(self):
+ ''' If the ``Content-Type`` header is ``application/json``, this
+ property holds the parsed content of the request body. Only requests
+ smaller than :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX` are processed to avoid memory
+ exhaustion. '''
+ ctype = self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower().split(';')[0]
+ if ctype == 'application/json':
+ b = self._get_body_string()
+ if not b:
+ return None
+ return json_loads(b)
+ return None
+
+ def _iter_body(self, read, bufsize):
+ maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
+ while maxread:
+ part = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
+ if not part: break
+ yield part
+ maxread -= len(part)
+
+ def _iter_chunked(self, read, bufsize):
+ err = HTTPError(400, 'Error while parsing chunked transfer body.')
+ rn, sem, bs = tob('\r\n'), tob(';'), tob('')
+ while True:
+ header = read(1)
+ while header[-2:] != rn:
+ c = read(1)
+ header += c
+ if not c: raise err
+ if len(header) > bufsize: raise err
+ size, _, _ = header.partition(sem)
+ try:
+ maxread = int(tonat(size.strip()), 16)
+ except ValueError:
+ raise err
+ if maxread == 0: break
+ buff = bs
+ while maxread > 0:
+ if not buff:
+ buff = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
+ part, buff = buff[:maxread], buff[maxread:]
+ if not part: raise err
+ yield part
+ maxread -= len(part)
+ if read(2) != rn:
+ raise err
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.body', read_only=True)
+ def _body(self):
+ body_iter = self._iter_chunked if self.chunked else self._iter_body
+ read_func = self.environ['wsgi.input'].read
+ body, body_size, is_temp_file = BytesIO(), 0, False
+ for part in body_iter(read_func, self.MEMFILE_MAX):
+ body.write(part)
+ body_size += len(part)
+ if not is_temp_file and body_size > self.MEMFILE_MAX:
+ body, tmp = TemporaryFile(mode='w+b'), body
+ body.write(tmp.getvalue())
+ del tmp
+ is_temp_file = True
+ self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
+ body.seek(0)
+ return body
+
+ def _get_body_string(self):
+ ''' read body until content-length or MEMFILE_MAX into a string. Raise
+ HTTPError(413) on requests that are to large. '''
+ clen = self.content_length
+ if clen > self.MEMFILE_MAX:
+ raise HTTPError(413, 'Request to large')
+ if clen < 0: clen = self.MEMFILE_MAX + 1
+ data = self.body.read(clen)
+ if len(data) > self.MEMFILE_MAX: # Fail fast
+ raise HTTPError(413, 'Request to large')
+ return data
+
+ @property
+ def body(self):
+ """ The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on
+ :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`, this is either a temporary file or a
+ :class:`io.BytesIO` instance. Accessing this property for the first
+ time reads and replaces the ``wsgi.input`` environ variable.
+ Subsequent accesses just do a `seek(0)` on the file object. """
+ self._body.seek(0)
+ return self._body
+
+ @property
+ def chunked(self):
+ ''' True if Chunked transfer encoding was. '''
+ return 'chunked' in self.environ.get('HTTP_TRANSFER_ENCODING', '').lower()
+
+ #: An alias for :attr:`query`.
+ GET = query
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.post', read_only=True)
+ def POST(self):
+ """ The values of :attr:`forms` and :attr:`files` combined into a single
+ :class:`FormsDict`. Values are either strings (form values) or
+ instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage` (file uploads).
+ """
+ post = FormsDict()
+ # We default to application/x-www-form-urlencoded for everything that
+ # is not multipart and take the fast path (also: 3.1 workaround)
+ if not self.content_type.startswith('multipart/'):
+ pairs = _parse_qsl(tonat(self._get_body_string(), 'latin1'))
+ for key, value in pairs:
+ post[key] = value
+ return post
+
+ safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING':''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
+ for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'):
+ if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
+ args = dict(fp=self.body, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
+ if py31:
+ args['fp'] = NCTextIOWrapper(args['fp'], encoding='utf8',
+ newline='\n')
+ elif py3k:
+ args['encoding'] = 'utf8'
+ data = cgi.FieldStorage(**args)
+ self['_cgi.FieldStorage'] = data #http://bugs.python.org/issue18394#msg207958
+ data = data.list or []
+ for item in data:
+ if item.filename:
+ post[item.name] = FileUpload(item.file, item.name,
+ item.filename, item.headers)
+ else:
+ post[item.name] = item.value
+ return post
+
+ @property
+ def url(self):
+ """ The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app
+ lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing
+ results, make sure that the ``X-Forwarded-Host`` header is set
+ correctly. """
+ return self.urlparts.geturl()
+
+ @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.urlparts', read_only=True)
+ def urlparts(self):
+ ''' The :attr:`url` string as an :class:`urlparse.SplitResult` tuple.
+ The tuple contains (scheme, host, path, query_string and fragment),
+ but the fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the
+ server. '''
+ env = self.environ
+ http = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO') or env.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
+ host = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST') or env.get('HTTP_HOST')
+ if not host:
+ # HTTP 1.1 requires a Host-header. This is for HTTP/1.0 clients.
+ host = env.get('SERVER_NAME', '127.0.0.1')
+ port = env.get('SERVER_PORT')
+ if port and port != ('80' if http == 'http' else '443'):
+ host += ':' + port
+ path = urlquote(self.fullpath)
+ return UrlSplitResult(http, host, path, env.get('QUERY_STRING'), '')
+
+ @property
+ def fullpath(self):
+ """ Request path including :attr:`script_name` (if present). """
+ return urljoin(self.script_name, self.path.lstrip('/'))
+
+ @property
+ def query_string(self):
+ """ The raw :attr:`query` part of the URL (everything in between ``?``
+ and ``#``) as a string. """
+ return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
+
+ @property
+ def script_name(self):
+ ''' The initial portion of the URL's `path` that was removed by a higher
+ level (server or routing middleware) before the application was
+ called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing
+ slashes. '''
+ script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/')
+ return '/' + script_name + '/' if script_name else '/'
+
+ def path_shift(self, shift=1):
+ ''' Shift path segments from :attr:`path` to :attr:`script_name` and
+ vice versa.
+
+ :param shift: The number of path segments to shift. May be negative
+ to change the shift direction. (default: 1)
+ '''
+ script = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','/')
+ self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self['PATH_INFO'] = path_shift(script, self.path, shift)
+
+ @property
+ def content_length(self):
+ ''' The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to
+ set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown
+ and -1 is returned. In this case, :attr:`body` will be empty. '''
+ return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH') or -1)
+
+ @property
+ def content_type(self):
+ ''' The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty). '''
+ return self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower()
+
+ @property
+ def is_xhr(self):
+ ''' True if the request was triggered by a XMLHttpRequest. This only
+ works with JavaScript libraries that support the `X-Requested-With`
+ header (most of the popular libraries do). '''
+ requested_with = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH','')
+ return requested_with.lower() == 'xmlhttprequest'
+
+ @property
+ def is_ajax(self):
+ ''' Alias for :attr:`is_xhr`. "Ajax" is not the right term. '''
+ return self.is_xhr
+
+ @property
+ def auth(self):
+ """ HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This
+ implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication
+ only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the
+ front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but
+ the user field is looked up from the ``REMOTE_USER`` environ
+ variable. On any errors, None is returned. """
+ basic = parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION',''))
+ if basic: return basic
+ ruser = self.environ.get('REMOTE_USER')
+ if ruser: return (ruser, None)
+ return None
+
+ @property
+ def remote_route(self):
+ """ A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with
+ the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only
+ work if all proxies support the ```X-Forwarded-For`` header. Note
+ that this information can be forged by malicious clients. """
+ proxy = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR')
+ if proxy: return [ip.strip() for ip in proxy.split(',')]
+ remote = self.environ.get('REMOTE_ADDR')
+ return [remote] if remote else []
+
+ @property
+ def remote_addr(self):
+ """ The client IP as a string. Note that this information can be forged
+ by malicious clients. """
+ route = self.remote_route
+ return route[0] if route else None
+
+ def copy(self):
+ """ Return a new :class:`Request` with a shallow :attr:`environ` copy. """
+ return Request(self.environ.copy())
+
+ def get(self, value, default=None): return self.environ.get(value, default)
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return self.environ[key]
+ def __delitem__(self, key): self[key] = ""; del(self.environ[key])
+ def __iter__(self): return iter(self.environ)
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.environ)
+ def keys(self): return self.environ.keys()
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+ """ Change an environ value and clear all caches that depend on it. """
+
+ if self.environ.get('bottle.request.readonly'):
+ raise KeyError('The environ dictionary is read-only.')
+
+ self.environ[key] = value
+ todelete = ()
+
+ if key == 'wsgi.input':
+ todelete = ('body', 'forms', 'files', 'params', 'post', 'json')
+ elif key == 'QUERY_STRING':
+ todelete = ('query', 'params')
+ elif key.startswith('HTTP_'):
+ todelete = ('headers', 'cookies')
+
+ for key in todelete:
+ self.environ.pop('bottle.request.'+key, None)
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ return '<%s: %s %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.method, self.url)
+
+ def __getattr__(self, name):
+ ''' Search in self.environ for additional user defined attributes. '''
+ try:
+ var = self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s'%name]
+ return var.__get__(self) if hasattr(var, '__get__') else var
+ except KeyError:
+ raise AttributeError('Attribute %r not defined.' % name)
+
+ def __setattr__(self, name, value):
+ if name == 'environ': return object.__setattr__(self, name, value)
+ self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s'%name] = value
+
+
+
+
+def _hkey(s):
+ return s.title().replace('_','-')
+
+
+class HeaderProperty(object):
+ def __init__(self, name, reader=None, writer=str, default=''):
+ self.name, self.default = name, default
+ self.reader, self.writer = reader, writer
+ self.__doc__ = 'Current value of the %r header.' % name.title()
+
+ def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+ if obj is None: return self
+ value = obj.headers.get(self.name, self.default)
+ return self.reader(value) if self.reader else value
+
+ def __set__(self, obj, value):
+ obj.headers[self.name] = self.writer(value)
+
+ def __delete__(self, obj):
+ del obj.headers[self.name]
+
+
+class BaseResponse(object):
+ """ Storage class for a response body as well as headers and cookies.
+
+ This class does support dict-like case-insensitive item-access to
+ headers, but is NOT a dict. Most notably, iterating over a response
+ yields parts of the body and not the headers.
+
+ :param body: The response body as one of the supported types.
+ :param status: Either an HTTP status code (e.g. 200) or a status line
+ including the reason phrase (e.g. '200 OK').
+ :param headers: A dictionary or a list of name-value pairs.
+
+ Additional keyword arguments are added to the list of headers.
+ Underscores in the header name are replaced with dashes.
+ """
+
+ default_status = 200
+ default_content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
+
+ # Header blacklist for specific response codes
+ # (rfc2616 section 10.2.3 and 10.3.5)
+ bad_headers = {
+ 204: set(('Content-Type',)),
+ 304: set(('Allow', 'Content-Encoding', 'Content-Language',
+ 'Content-Length', 'Content-Range', 'Content-Type',
+ 'Content-Md5', 'Last-Modified'))}
+
+ def __init__(self, body='', status=None, headers=None, **more_headers):
+ self._cookies = None
+ self._headers = {}
+ self.body = body
+ self.status = status or self.default_status
+ if headers:
+ if isinstance(headers, dict):
+ headers = headers.items()
+ for name, value in headers:
+ self.add_header(name, value)
+ if more_headers:
+ for name, value in more_headers.items():
+ self.add_header(name, value)
+
+ def copy(self, cls=None):
+ ''' Returns a copy of self. '''
+ cls = cls or BaseResponse
+ assert issubclass(cls, BaseResponse)
+ copy = cls()
+ copy.status = self.status
+ copy._headers = dict((k, v[:]) for (k, v) in self._headers.items())
+ if self._cookies:
+ copy._cookies = SimpleCookie()
+ copy._cookies.load(self._cookies.output(header=''))
+ return copy
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ return iter(self.body)
+
+ def close(self):
+ if hasattr(self.body, 'close'):
+ self.body.close()
+
+ @property
+ def status_line(self):
+ ''' The HTTP status line as a string (e.g. ``404 Not Found``).'''
+ return self._status_line
+
+ @property
+ def status_code(self):
+ ''' The HTTP status code as an integer (e.g. 404).'''
+ return self._status_code
+
+ def _set_status(self, status):
+ if isinstance(status, int):
+ code, status = status, _HTTP_STATUS_LINES.get(status)
+ elif ' ' in status:
+ status = status.strip()
+ code = int(status.split()[0])
+ else:
+ raise ValueError('String status line without a reason phrase.')
+ if not 100 <= code <= 999: raise ValueError('Status code out of range.')
+ self._status_code = code
+ self._status_line = str(status or ('%d Unknown' % code))
+
+ def _get_status(self):
+ return self._status_line
+
+ status = property(_get_status, _set_status, None,
+ ''' A writeable property to change the HTTP response status. It accepts
+ either a numeric code (100-999) or a string with a custom reason
+ phrase (e.g. "404 Brain not found"). Both :data:`status_line` and
+ :data:`status_code` are updated accordingly. The return value is
+ always a status string. ''')
+ del _get_status, _set_status
+
+ @property
+ def headers(self):
+ ''' An instance of :class:`HeaderDict`, a case-insensitive dict-like
+ view on the response headers. '''
+ hdict = HeaderDict()
+ hdict.dict = self._headers
+ return hdict
+
+ def __contains__(self, name): return _hkey(name) in self._headers
+ def __delitem__(self, name): del self._headers[_hkey(name)]
+ def __getitem__(self, name): return self._headers[_hkey(name)][-1]
+ def __setitem__(self, name, value): self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [str(value)]
+
+ def get_header(self, name, default=None):
+ ''' Return the value of a previously defined header. If there is no
+ header with that name, return a default value. '''
+ return self._headers.get(_hkey(name), [default])[-1]
+
+ def set_header(self, name, value):
+ ''' Create a new response header, replacing any previously defined
+ headers with the same name. '''
+ self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [str(value)]
+
+ def add_header(self, name, value):
+ ''' Add an additional response header, not removing duplicates. '''
+ self._headers.setdefault(_hkey(name), []).append(str(value))
+
+ def iter_headers(self):
+ ''' Yield (header, value) tuples, skipping headers that are not
+ allowed with the current response status code. '''
+ return self.headerlist
+
+ @property
+ def headerlist(self):
+ ''' WSGI conform list of (header, value) tuples. '''
+ out = []
+ headers = list(self._headers.items())
+ if 'Content-Type' not in self._headers:
+ headers.append(('Content-Type', [self.default_content_type]))
+ if self._status_code in self.bad_headers:
+ bad_headers = self.bad_headers[self._status_code]
+ headers = [h for h in headers if h[0] not in bad_headers]
+ out += [(name, val) for name, vals in headers for val in vals]
+ if self._cookies:
+ for c in self._cookies.values():
+ out.append(('Set-Cookie', c.OutputString()))
+ return out
+
+ content_type = HeaderProperty('Content-Type')
+ content_length = HeaderProperty('Content-Length', reader=int)
+ expires = HeaderProperty('Expires',
+ reader=lambda x: datetime.utcfromtimestamp(parse_date(x)),
+ writer=lambda x: http_date(x))
+
+ @property
+ def charset(self, default='UTF-8'):
+ """ Return the charset specified in the content-type header (default: utf8). """
+ if 'charset=' in self.content_type:
+ return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip()
+ return default
+
+ def set_cookie(self, name, value, secret=None, **options):
+ ''' Create a new cookie or replace an old one. If the `secret` parameter is
+ set, create a `Signed Cookie` (described below).
+
+ :param name: the name of the cookie.
+ :param value: the value of the cookie.
+ :param secret: a signature key required for signed cookies.
+
+ Additionally, this method accepts all RFC 2109 attributes that are
+ supported by :class:`cookie.Morsel`, including:
+
+ :param max_age: maximum age in seconds. (default: None)
+ :param expires: a datetime object or UNIX timestamp. (default: None)
+ :param domain: the domain that is allowed to read the cookie.
+ (default: current domain)
+ :param path: limits the cookie to a given path (default: current path)
+ :param secure: limit the cookie to HTTPS connections (default: off).
+ :param httponly: prevents client-side javascript to read this cookie
+ (default: off, requires Python 2.6 or newer).
+
+ If neither `expires` nor `max_age` is set (default), the cookie will
+ expire at the end of the browser session (as soon as the browser
+ window is closed).
+
+ Signed cookies may store any pickle-able object and are
+ cryptographically signed to prevent manipulation. Keep in mind that
+ cookies are limited to 4kb in most browsers.
+
+ Warning: Signed cookies are not encrypted (the client can still see
+ the content) and not copy-protected (the client can restore an old
+ cookie). The main intention is to make pickling and unpickling
+ save, not to store secret information at client side.
+ '''
+ if not self._cookies:
+ self._cookies = SimpleCookie()
+
+ if secret:
+ value = touni(cookie_encode((name, value), secret))
+ elif not isinstance(value, basestring):
+ raise TypeError('Secret key missing for non-string Cookie.')
+
+ if len(value) > 4096: raise ValueError('Cookie value to long.')
+ self._cookies[name] = value
+
+ for key, value in options.items():
+ if key == 'max_age':
+ if isinstance(value, timedelta):
+ value = value.seconds + value.days * 24 * 3600
+ if key == 'expires':
+ if isinstance(value, (datedate, datetime)):
+ value = value.timetuple()
+ elif isinstance(value, (int, float)):
+ value = time.gmtime(value)
+ value = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", value)
+ self._cookies[name][key.replace('_', '-')] = value
+
+ def delete_cookie(self, key, **kwargs):
+ ''' Delete a cookie. Be sure to use the same `domain` and `path`
+ settings as used to create the cookie. '''
+ kwargs['max_age'] = -1
+ kwargs['expires'] = 0
+ self.set_cookie(key, '', **kwargs)
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ out = ''
+ for name, value in self.headerlist:
+ out += '%s: %s\n' % (name.title(), value.strip())
+ return out
+
+
+def local_property(name=None):
+ if name: depr('local_property() is deprecated and will be removed.') #0.12
+ ls = threading.local()
+ def fget(self):
+ try: return ls.var
+ except AttributeError:
+ raise RuntimeError("Request context not initialized.")
+ def fset(self, value): ls.var = value
+ def fdel(self): del ls.var
+ return property(fget, fset, fdel, 'Thread-local property')
+
+
+class LocalRequest(BaseRequest):
+ ''' A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseRequest` with a different
+ set of attributes for each thread. There is usually only one global
+ instance of this class (:data:`request`). If accessed during a
+ request/response cycle, this instance always refers to the *current*
+ request (even on a multithreaded server). '''
+ bind = BaseRequest.__init__
+ environ = local_property()
+
+
+class LocalResponse(BaseResponse):
+ ''' A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseResponse` with a different
+ set of attributes for each thread. There is usually only one global
+ instance of this class (:data:`response`). Its attributes are used
+ to build the HTTP response at the end of the request/response cycle.
+ '''
+ bind = BaseResponse.__init__
+ _status_line = local_property()
+ _status_code = local_property()
+ _cookies = local_property()
+ _headers = local_property()
+ body = local_property()
+
+
+Request = BaseRequest
+Response = BaseResponse
+
+
+class HTTPResponse(Response, BottleException):
+ def __init__(self, body='', status=None, headers=None, **more_headers):
+ super(HTTPResponse, self).__init__(body, status, headers, **more_headers)
+
+ def apply(self, response):
+ response._status_code = self._status_code
+ response._status_line = self._status_line
+ response._headers = self._headers
+ response._cookies = self._cookies
+ response.body = self.body
+
+
+class HTTPError(HTTPResponse):
+ default_status = 500
+ def __init__(self, status=None, body=None, exception=None, traceback=None,
+ **options):
+ self.exception = exception
+ self.traceback = traceback
+ super(HTTPError, self).__init__(body, status, **options)
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Plugins ######################################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+class PluginError(BottleException): pass
+
+
+class JSONPlugin(object):
+ name = 'json'
+ api = 2
+
+ def __init__(self, json_dumps=json_dumps):
+ self.json_dumps = json_dumps
+
+ def apply(self, callback, route):
+ dumps = self.json_dumps
+ if not dumps: return callback
+ def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+ try:
+ rv = callback(*a, **ka)
+ except HTTPError:
+ rv = _e()
+
+ if isinstance(rv, dict):
+ #Attempt to serialize, raises exception on failure
+ json_response = dumps(rv)
+ #Set content type only if serialization succesful
+ response.content_type = 'application/json'
+ return json_response
+ elif isinstance(rv, HTTPResponse) and isinstance(rv.body, dict):
+ rv.body = dumps(rv.body)
+ rv.content_type = 'application/json'
+ return rv
+
+ return wrapper
+
+
+class TemplatePlugin(object):
+ ''' This plugin applies the :func:`view` decorator to all routes with a
+ `template` config parameter. If the parameter is a tuple, the second
+ element must be a dict with additional options (e.g. `template_engine`)
+ or default variables for the template. '''
+ name = 'template'
+ api = 2
+
+ def apply(self, callback, route):
+ conf = route.config.get('template')
+ if isinstance(conf, (tuple, list)) and len(conf) == 2:
+ return view(conf[0], **conf[1])(callback)
+ elif isinstance(conf, str):
+ return view(conf)(callback)
+ else:
+ return callback
+
+
+#: Not a plugin, but part of the plugin API. TODO: Find a better place.
+class _ImportRedirect(object):
+ def __init__(self, name, impmask):
+ ''' Create a virtual package that redirects imports (see PEP 302). '''
+ self.name = name
+ self.impmask = impmask
+ self.module = sys.modules.setdefault(name, imp.new_module(name))
+ self.module.__dict__.update({'__file__': __file__, '__path__': [],
+ '__all__': [], '__loader__': self})
+ sys.meta_path.append(self)
+
+ def find_module(self, fullname, path=None):
+ if '.' not in fullname: return
+ packname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)[0]
+ if packname != self.name: return
+ return self
+
+ def load_module(self, fullname):
+ if fullname in sys.modules: return sys.modules[fullname]
+ modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)[1]
+ realname = self.impmask % modname
+ __import__(realname)
+ module = sys.modules[fullname] = sys.modules[realname]
+ setattr(self.module, modname, module)
+ module.__loader__ = self
+ return module
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Common Utilities #############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class MultiDict(DictMixin):
+ """ This dict stores multiple values per key, but behaves exactly like a
+ normal dict in that it returns only the newest value for any given key.
+ There are special methods available to access the full list of values.
+ """
+
+ def __init__(self, *a, **k):
+ self.dict = dict((k, [v]) for (k, v) in dict(*a, **k).items())
+
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.dict)
+ def __iter__(self): return iter(self.dict)
+ def __contains__(self, key): return key in self.dict
+ def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[key]
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return self.dict[key][-1]
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.append(key, value)
+ def keys(self): return self.dict.keys()
+
+ if py3k:
+ def values(self): return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.values())
+ def items(self): return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items())
+ def allitems(self):
+ return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.items() for v in vl)
+ iterkeys = keys
+ itervalues = values
+ iteritems = items
+ iterallitems = allitems
+
+ else:
+ def values(self): return [v[-1] for v in self.dict.values()]
+ def items(self): return [(k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items()]
+ def iterkeys(self): return self.dict.iterkeys()
+ def itervalues(self): return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.itervalues())
+ def iteritems(self):
+ return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.iteritems())
+ def iterallitems(self):
+ return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl)
+ def allitems(self):
+ return [(k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl]
+
+ def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1, type=None):
+ ''' Return the most recent value for a key.
+
+ :param default: The default value to be returned if the key is not
+ present or the type conversion fails.
+ :param index: An index for the list of available values.
+ :param type: If defined, this callable is used to cast the value
+ into a specific type. Exception are suppressed and result in
+ the default value to be returned.
+ '''
+ try:
+ val = self.dict[key][index]
+ return type(val) if type else val
+ except Exception:
+ pass
+ return default
+
+ def append(self, key, value):
+ ''' Add a new value to the list of values for this key. '''
+ self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
+
+ def replace(self, key, value):
+ ''' Replace the list of values with a single value. '''
+ self.dict[key] = [value]
+
+ def getall(self, key):
+ ''' Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key. '''
+ return self.dict.get(key) or []
+
+ #: Aliases for WTForms to mimic other multi-dict APIs (Django)
+ getone = get
+ getlist = getall
+
+
+class FormsDict(MultiDict):
+ ''' This :class:`MultiDict` subclass is used to store request form data.
+ Additionally to the normal dict-like item access methods (which return
+ unmodified data as native strings), this container also supports
+ attribute-like access to its values. Attributes are automatically de-
+ or recoded to match :attr:`input_encoding` (default: 'utf8'). Missing
+ attributes default to an empty string. '''
+
+ #: Encoding used for attribute values.
+ input_encoding = 'utf8'
+ #: If true (default), unicode strings are first encoded with `latin1`
+ #: and then decoded to match :attr:`input_encoding`.
+ recode_unicode = True
+
+ def _fix(self, s, encoding=None):
+ if isinstance(s, unicode) and self.recode_unicode: # Python 3 WSGI
+ return s.encode('latin1').decode(encoding or self.input_encoding)
+ elif isinstance(s, bytes): # Python 2 WSGI
+ return s.decode(encoding or self.input_encoding)
+ else:
+ return s
+
+ def decode(self, encoding=None):
+ ''' Returns a copy with all keys and values de- or recoded to match
+ :attr:`input_encoding`. Some libraries (e.g. WTForms) want a
+ unicode dictionary. '''
+ copy = FormsDict()
+ enc = copy.input_encoding = encoding or self.input_encoding
+ copy.recode_unicode = False
+ for key, value in self.allitems():
+ copy.append(self._fix(key, enc), self._fix(value, enc))
+ return copy
+
+ def getunicode(self, name, default=None, encoding=None):
+ ''' Return the value as a unicode string, or the default. '''
+ try:
+ return self._fix(self[name], encoding)
+ except (UnicodeError, KeyError):
+ return default
+
+ def __getattr__(self, name, default=unicode()):
+ # Without this guard, pickle generates a cryptic TypeError:
+ if name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'):
+ return super(FormsDict, self).__getattr__(name)
+ return self.getunicode(name, default=default)
+
+
+class HeaderDict(MultiDict):
+ """ A case-insensitive version of :class:`MultiDict` that defaults to
+ replace the old value instead of appending it. """
+
+ def __init__(self, *a, **ka):
+ self.dict = {}
+ if a or ka: self.update(*a, **ka)
+
+ def __contains__(self, key): return _hkey(key) in self.dict
+ def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[_hkey(key)]
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return self.dict[_hkey(key)][-1]
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [str(value)]
+ def append(self, key, value):
+ self.dict.setdefault(_hkey(key), []).append(str(value))
+ def replace(self, key, value): self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [str(value)]
+ def getall(self, key): return self.dict.get(_hkey(key)) or []
+ def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
+ return MultiDict.get(self, _hkey(key), default, index)
+ def filter(self, names):
+ for name in [_hkey(n) for n in names]:
+ if name in self.dict:
+ del self.dict[name]
+
+
+class WSGIHeaderDict(DictMixin):
+ ''' This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient
+ access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings
+ (2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI
+ environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded
+ using a lossless 'latin1' character set.
+
+ The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs.
+ Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one
+ that uses non-native strings.)
+ '''
+ #: List of keys that do not have a ``HTTP_`` prefix.
+ cgikeys = ('CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH')
+
+ def __init__(self, environ):
+ self.environ = environ
+
+ def _ekey(self, key):
+ ''' Translate header field name to CGI/WSGI environ key. '''
+ key = key.replace('-','_').upper()
+ if key in self.cgikeys:
+ return key
+ return 'HTTP_' + key
+
+ def raw(self, key, default=None):
+ ''' Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode). '''
+ return self.environ.get(self._ekey(key), default)
+
+ def __getitem__(self, key):
+ return tonat(self.environ[self._ekey(key)], 'latin1')
+
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+ raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
+
+ def __delitem__(self, key):
+ raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ for key in self.environ:
+ if key[:5] == 'HTTP_':
+ yield key[5:].replace('_', '-').title()
+ elif key in self.cgikeys:
+ yield key.replace('_', '-').title()
+
+ def keys(self): return [x for x in self]
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.keys())
+ def __contains__(self, key): return self._ekey(key) in self.environ
+
+
+
+class ConfigDict(dict):
+ ''' A dict-like configuration storage with additional support for
+ namespaces, validators, meta-data, on_change listeners and more.
+
+ This storage is optimized for fast read access. Retrieving a key
+ or using non-altering dict methods (e.g. `dict.get()`) has no overhead
+ compared to a native dict.
+ '''
+ __slots__ = ('_meta', '_on_change')
+
+ class Namespace(DictMixin):
+
+ def __init__(self, config, namespace):
+ self._config = config
+ self._prefix = namespace
+
+ def __getitem__(self, key):
+ depr('Accessing namespaces as dicts is discouraged. '
+ 'Only use flat item access: '
+ 'cfg["names"]["pace"]["key"] -> cfg["name.space.key"]') #0.12
+ return self._config[self._prefix + '.' + key]
+
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+ self._config[self._prefix + '.' + key] = value
+
+ def __delitem__(self, key):
+ del self._config[self._prefix + '.' + key]
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ ns_prefix = self._prefix + '.'
+ for key in self._config:
+ ns, dot, name = key.rpartition('.')
+ if ns == self._prefix and name:
+ yield name
+
+ def keys(self): return [x for x in self]
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.keys())
+ def __contains__(self, key): return self._prefix + '.' + key in self._config
+ def __repr__(self): return '<Config.Namespace %s.*>' % self._prefix
+ def __str__(self): return '<Config.Namespace %s.*>' % self._prefix
+
+ # Deprecated ConfigDict features
+ def __getattr__(self, key):
+ depr('Attribute access is deprecated.') #0.12
+ if key not in self and key[0].isupper():
+ self[key] = ConfigDict.Namespace(self._config, self._prefix + '.' + key)
+ if key not in self and key.startswith('__'):
+ raise AttributeError(key)
+ return self.get(key)
+
+ def __setattr__(self, key, value):
+ if key in ('_config', '_prefix'):
+ self.__dict__[key] = value
+ return
+ depr('Attribute assignment is deprecated.') #0.12
+ if hasattr(DictMixin, key):
+ raise AttributeError('Read-only attribute.')
+ if key in self and self[key] and isinstance(self[key], self.__class__):
+ raise AttributeError('Non-empty namespace attribute.')
+ self[key] = value
+
+ def __delattr__(self, key):
+ if key in self:
+ val = self.pop(key)
+ if isinstance(val, self.__class__):
+ prefix = key + '.'
+ for key in self:
+ if key.startswith(prefix):
+ del self[prefix+key]
+
+ def __call__(self, *a, **ka):
+ depr('Calling ConfDict is deprecated. Use the update() method.') #0.12
+ self.update(*a, **ka)
+ return self
+
+ def __init__(self, *a, **ka):
+ self._meta = {}
+ self._on_change = lambda name, value: None
+ if a or ka:
+ depr('Constructor does no longer accept parameters.') #0.12
+ self.update(*a, **ka)
+
+ def load_config(self, filename):
+ ''' Load values from an *.ini style config file.
+
+ If the config file contains sections, their names are used as
+ namespaces for the values within. The two special sections
+ ``DEFAULT`` and ``bottle`` refer to the root namespace (no prefix).
+ '''
+ conf = ConfigParser()
+ conf.read(filename)
+ for section in conf.sections():
+ for key, value in conf.items(section):
+ if section not in ('DEFAULT', 'bottle'):
+ key = section + '.' + key
+ self[key] = value
+ return self
+
+ def load_dict(self, source, namespace='', make_namespaces=False):
+ ''' Import values from a dictionary structure. Nesting can be used to
+ represent namespaces.
+
+ >>> ConfigDict().load_dict({'name': {'space': {'key': 'value'}}})
+ {'name.space.key': 'value'}
+ '''
+ stack = [(namespace, source)]
+ while stack:
+ prefix, source = stack.pop()
+ if not isinstance(source, dict):
+ raise TypeError('Source is not a dict (r)' % type(key))
+ for key, value in source.items():
+ if not isinstance(key, str):
+ raise TypeError('Key is not a string (%r)' % type(key))
+ full_key = prefix + '.' + key if prefix else key
+ if isinstance(value, dict):
+ stack.append((full_key, value))
+ if make_namespaces:
+ self[full_key] = self.Namespace(self, full_key)
+ else:
+ self[full_key] = value
+ return self
+
+ def update(self, *a, **ka):
+ ''' If the first parameter is a string, all keys are prefixed with this
+ namespace. Apart from that it works just as the usual dict.update().
+ Example: ``update('some.namespace', key='value')`` '''
+ prefix = ''
+ if a and isinstance(a[0], str):
+ prefix = a[0].strip('.') + '.'
+ a = a[1:]
+ for key, value in dict(*a, **ka).items():
+ self[prefix+key] = value
+
+ def setdefault(self, key, value):
+ if key not in self:
+ self[key] = value
+ return self[key]
+
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+ if not isinstance(key, str):
+ raise TypeError('Key has type %r (not a string)' % type(key))
+
+ value = self.meta_get(key, 'filter', lambda x: x)(value)
+ if key in self and self[key] is value:
+ return
+ self._on_change(key, value)
+ dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
+
+ def __delitem__(self, key):
+ dict.__delitem__(self, key)
+
+ def clear(self):
+ for key in self:
+ del self[key]
+
+ def meta_get(self, key, metafield, default=None):
+ ''' Return the value of a meta field for a key. '''
+ return self._meta.get(key, {}).get(metafield, default)
+
+ def meta_set(self, key, metafield, value):
+ ''' Set the meta field for a key to a new value. This triggers the
+ on-change handler for existing keys. '''
+ self._meta.setdefault(key, {})[metafield] = value
+ if key in self:
+ self[key] = self[key]
+
+ def meta_list(self, key):
+ ''' Return an iterable of meta field names defined for a key. '''
+ return self._meta.get(key, {}).keys()
+
+ # Deprecated ConfigDict features
+ def __getattr__(self, key):
+ depr('Attribute access is deprecated.') #0.12
+ if key not in self and key[0].isupper():
+ self[key] = self.Namespace(self, key)
+ if key not in self and key.startswith('__'):
+ raise AttributeError(key)
+ return self.get(key)
+
+ def __setattr__(self, key, value):
+ if key in self.__slots__:
+ return dict.__setattr__(self, key, value)
+ depr('Attribute assignment is deprecated.') #0.12
+ if hasattr(dict, key):
+ raise AttributeError('Read-only attribute.')
+ if key in self and self[key] and isinstance(self[key], self.Namespace):
+ raise AttributeError('Non-empty namespace attribute.')
+ self[key] = value
+
+ def __delattr__(self, key):
+ if key in self:
+ val = self.pop(key)
+ if isinstance(val, self.Namespace):
+ prefix = key + '.'
+ for key in self:
+ if key.startswith(prefix):
+ del self[prefix+key]
+
+ def __call__(self, *a, **ka):
+ depr('Calling ConfDict is deprecated. Use the update() method.') #0.12
+ self.update(*a, **ka)
+ return self
+
+
+
+class AppStack(list):
+ """ A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack. """
+
+ def __call__(self):
+ """ Return the current default application. """
+ return self[-1]
+
+ def push(self, value=None):
+ """ Add a new :class:`Bottle` instance to the stack """
+ if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
+ value = Bottle()
+ self.append(value)
+ return value
+
+
+class WSGIFileWrapper(object):
+
+ def __init__(self, fp, buffer_size=1024*64):
+ self.fp, self.buffer_size = fp, buffer_size
+ for attr in ('fileno', 'close', 'read', 'readlines', 'tell', 'seek'):
+ if hasattr(fp, attr): setattr(self, attr, getattr(fp, attr))
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ buff, read = self.buffer_size, self.read
+ while True:
+ part = read(buff)
+ if not part: return
+ yield part
+
+
+class _closeiter(object):
+ ''' This only exists to be able to attach a .close method to iterators that
+ do not support attribute assignment (most of itertools). '''
+
+ def __init__(self, iterator, close=None):
+ self.iterator = iterator
+ self.close_callbacks = makelist(close)
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ return iter(self.iterator)
+
+ def close(self):
+ for func in self.close_callbacks:
+ func()
+
+
+class ResourceManager(object):
+ ''' This class manages a list of search paths and helps to find and open
+ application-bound resources (files).
+
+ :param base: default value for :meth:`add_path` calls.
+ :param opener: callable used to open resources.
+ :param cachemode: controls which lookups are cached. One of 'all',
+ 'found' or 'none'.
+ '''
+
+ def __init__(self, base='./', opener=open, cachemode='all'):
+ self.opener = open
+ self.base = base
+ self.cachemode = cachemode
+
+ #: A list of search paths. See :meth:`add_path` for details.
+ self.path = []
+ #: A cache for resolved paths. ``res.cache.clear()`` clears the cache.
+ self.cache = {}
+
+ def add_path(self, path, base=None, index=None, create=False):
+ ''' Add a new path to the list of search paths. Return False if the
+ path does not exist.
+
+ :param path: The new search path. Relative paths are turned into
+ an absolute and normalized form. If the path looks like a file
+ (not ending in `/`), the filename is stripped off.
+ :param base: Path used to absolutize relative search paths.
+ Defaults to :attr:`base` which defaults to ``os.getcwd()``.
+ :param index: Position within the list of search paths. Defaults
+ to last index (appends to the list).
+
+ The `base` parameter makes it easy to reference files installed
+ along with a python module or package::
+
+ res.add_path('./resources/', __file__)
+ '''
+ base = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(base or self.base))
+ path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(base, os.path.dirname(path)))
+ path += os.sep
+ if path in self.path:
+ self.path.remove(path)
+ if create and not os.path.isdir(path):
+ os.makedirs(path)
+ if index is None:
+ self.path.append(path)
+ else:
+ self.path.insert(index, path)
+ self.cache.clear()
+ return os.path.exists(path)
+
+ def __iter__(self):
+ ''' Iterate over all existing files in all registered paths. '''
+ search = self.path[:]
+ while search:
+ path = search.pop()
+ if not os.path.isdir(path): continue
+ for name in os.listdir(path):
+ full = os.path.join(path, name)
+ if os.path.isdir(full): search.append(full)
+ else: yield full
+
+ def lookup(self, name):
+ ''' Search for a resource and return an absolute file path, or `None`.
+
+ The :attr:`path` list is searched in order. The first match is
+ returend. Symlinks are followed. The result is cached to speed up
+ future lookups. '''
+ if name not in self.cache or DEBUG:
+ for path in self.path:
+ fpath = os.path.join(path, name)
+ if os.path.isfile(fpath):
+ if self.cachemode in ('all', 'found'):
+ self.cache[name] = fpath
+ return fpath
+ if self.cachemode == 'all':
+ self.cache[name] = None
+ return self.cache[name]
+
+ def open(self, name, mode='r', *args, **kwargs):
+ ''' Find a resource and return a file object, or raise IOError. '''
+ fname = self.lookup(name)
+ if not fname: raise IOError("Resource %r not found." % name)
+ return self.opener(fname, mode=mode, *args, **kwargs)
+
+
+class FileUpload(object):
+
+ def __init__(self, fileobj, name, filename, headers=None):
+ ''' Wrapper for file uploads. '''
+ #: Open file(-like) object (BytesIO buffer or temporary file)
+ self.file = fileobj
+ #: Name of the upload form field
+ self.name = name
+ #: Raw filename as sent by the client (may contain unsafe characters)
+ self.raw_filename = filename
+ #: A :class:`HeaderDict` with additional headers (e.g. content-type)
+ self.headers = HeaderDict(headers) if headers else HeaderDict()
+
+ content_type = HeaderProperty('Content-Type')
+ content_length = HeaderProperty('Content-Length', reader=int, default=-1)
+
+ @cached_property
+ def filename(self):
+ ''' Name of the file on the client file system, but normalized to ensure
+ file system compatibility. An empty filename is returned as 'empty'.
+
+ Only ASCII letters, digits, dashes, underscores and dots are
+ allowed in the final filename. Accents are removed, if possible.
+ Whitespace is replaced by a single dash. Leading or tailing dots
+ or dashes are removed. The filename is limited to 255 characters.
+ '''
+ fname = self.raw_filename
+ if not isinstance(fname, unicode):
+ fname = fname.decode('utf8', 'ignore')
+ fname = normalize('NFKD', fname).encode('ASCII', 'ignore').decode('ASCII')
+ fname = os.path.basename(fname.replace('\\', os.path.sep))
+ fname = re.sub(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9-_.\s]', '', fname).strip()
+ fname = re.sub(r'[-\s]+', '-', fname).strip('.-')
+ return fname[:255] or 'empty'
+
+ def _copy_file(self, fp, chunk_size=2**16):
+ read, write, offset = self.file.read, fp.write, self.file.tell()
+ while 1:
+ buf = read(chunk_size)
+ if not buf: break
+ write(buf)
+ self.file.seek(offset)
+
+ def save(self, destination, overwrite=False, chunk_size=2**16):
+ ''' Save file to disk or copy its content to an open file(-like) object.
+ If *destination* is a directory, :attr:`filename` is added to the
+ path. Existing files are not overwritten by default (IOError).
+
+ :param destination: File path, directory or file(-like) object.
+ :param overwrite: If True, replace existing files. (default: False)
+ :param chunk_size: Bytes to read at a time. (default: 64kb)
+ '''
+ if isinstance(destination, basestring): # Except file-likes here
+ if os.path.isdir(destination):
+ destination = os.path.join(destination, self.filename)
+ if not overwrite and os.path.exists(destination):
+ raise IOError('File exists.')
+ with open(destination, 'wb') as fp:
+ self._copy_file(fp, chunk_size)
+ else:
+ self._copy_file(destination, chunk_size)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Helper ###########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error.'):
+ """ Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """
+ raise HTTPError(code, text)
+
+
+def redirect(url, code=None):
+ """ Aborts execution and causes a 303 or 302 redirect, depending on
+ the HTTP protocol version. """
+ if not code:
+ code = 303 if request.get('SERVER_PROTOCOL') == "HTTP/1.1" else 302
+ res = response.copy(cls=HTTPResponse)
+ res.status = code
+ res.body = ""
+ res.set_header('Location', urljoin(request.url, url))
+ raise res
+
+
+def _file_iter_range(fp, offset, bytes, maxread=1024*1024):
+ ''' Yield chunks from a range in a file. No chunk is bigger than maxread.'''
+ fp.seek(offset)
+ while bytes > 0:
+ part = fp.read(min(bytes, maxread))
+ if not part: break
+ bytes -= len(part)
+ yield part
+
+
+def static_file(filename, root, mimetype='auto', download=False, charset='UTF-8'):
+ """ Open a file in a safe way and return :exc:`HTTPResponse` with status
+ code 200, 305, 403 or 404. The ``Content-Type``, ``Content-Encoding``,
+ ``Content-Length`` and ``Last-Modified`` headers are set if possible.
+ Special support for ``If-Modified-Since``, ``Range`` and ``HEAD``
+ requests.
+
+ :param filename: Name or path of the file to send.
+ :param root: Root path for file lookups. Should be an absolute directory
+ path.
+ :param mimetype: Defines the content-type header (default: guess from
+ file extension)
+ :param download: If True, ask the browser to open a `Save as...` dialog
+ instead of opening the file with the associated program. You can
+ specify a custom filename as a string. If not specified, the
+ original filename is used (default: False).
+ :param charset: The charset to use for files with a ``text/*``
+ mime-type. (default: UTF-8)
+ """
+
+ root = os.path.abspath(root) + os.sep
+ filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\')))
+ headers = dict()
+
+ if not filename.startswith(root):
+ return HTTPError(403, "Access denied.")
+ if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename):
+ return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.")
+ if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK):
+ return HTTPError(403, "You do not have permission to access this file.")
+
+ if mimetype == 'auto':
+ mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename)
+ if encoding: headers['Content-Encoding'] = encoding
+
+ if mimetype:
+ if mimetype[:5] == 'text/' and charset and 'charset' not in mimetype:
+ mimetype += '; charset=%s' % charset
+ headers['Content-Type'] = mimetype
+
+ if download:
+ download = os.path.basename(filename if download == True else download)
+ headers['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download
+
+ stats = os.stat(filename)
+ headers['Content-Length'] = clen = stats.st_size
+ lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime))
+ headers['Last-Modified'] = lm
+
+ ims = request.environ.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE')
+ if ims:
+ ims = parse_date(ims.split(";")[0].strip())
+ if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime):
+ headers['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime())
+ return HTTPResponse(status=304, **headers)
+
+ body = '' if request.method == 'HEAD' else open(filename, 'rb')
+
+ headers["Accept-Ranges"] = "bytes"
+ ranges = request.environ.get('HTTP_RANGE')
+ if 'HTTP_RANGE' in request.environ:
+ ranges = list(parse_range_header(request.environ['HTTP_RANGE'], clen))
+ if not ranges:
+ return HTTPError(416, "Requested Range Not Satisfiable")
+ offset, end = ranges[0]
+ headers["Content-Range"] = "bytes %d-%d/%d" % (offset, end-1, clen)
+ headers["Content-Length"] = str(end-offset)
+ if body: body = _file_iter_range(body, offset, end-offset)
+ return HTTPResponse(body, status=206, **headers)
+ return HTTPResponse(body, **headers)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# HTTP Utilities and MISC (TODO) ###############################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def debug(mode=True):
+ """ Change the debug level.
+ There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
+ global DEBUG
+ if mode: warnings.simplefilter('default')
+ DEBUG = bool(mode)
+
+def http_date(value):
+ if isinstance(value, (datedate, datetime)):
+ value = value.utctimetuple()
+ elif isinstance(value, (int, float)):
+ value = time.gmtime(value)
+ if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+ value = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", value)
+ return value
+
+def parse_date(ims):
+ """ Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """
+ try:
+ ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims)
+ return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0,)) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone
+ except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError, OverflowError):
+ return None
+
+def parse_auth(header):
+ """ Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None"""
+ try:
+ method, data = header.split(None, 1)
+ if method.lower() == 'basic':
+ user, pwd = touni(base64.b64decode(tob(data))).split(':',1)
+ return user, pwd
+ except (KeyError, ValueError):
+ return None
+
+def parse_range_header(header, maxlen=0):
+ ''' Yield (start, end) ranges parsed from a HTTP Range header. Skip
+ unsatisfiable ranges. The end index is non-inclusive.'''
+ if not header or header[:6] != 'bytes=': return
+ ranges = [r.split('-', 1) for r in header[6:].split(',') if '-' in r]
+ for start, end in ranges:
+ try:
+ if not start: # bytes=-100 -> last 100 bytes
+ start, end = max(0, maxlen-int(end)), maxlen
+ elif not end: # bytes=100- -> all but the first 99 bytes
+ start, end = int(start), maxlen
+ else: # bytes=100-200 -> bytes 100-200 (inclusive)
+ start, end = int(start), min(int(end)+1, maxlen)
+ if 0 <= start < end <= maxlen:
+ yield start, end
+ except ValueError:
+ pass
+
+def _parse_qsl(qs):
+ r = []
+ for pair in qs.replace(';','&').split('&'):
+ if not pair: continue
+ nv = pair.split('=', 1)
+ if len(nv) != 2: nv.append('')
+ key = urlunquote(nv[0].replace('+', ' '))
+ value = urlunquote(nv[1].replace('+', ' '))
+ r.append((key, value))
+ return r
+
+def _lscmp(a, b):
+ ''' Compares two strings in a cryptographically safe way:
+ Runtime is not affected by length of common prefix. '''
+ return not sum(0 if x==y else 1 for x, y in zip(a, b)) and len(a) == len(b)
+
+
+def cookie_encode(data, key):
+ ''' Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a (byte) string '''
+ msg = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(data, -1))
+ sig = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(tob(key), msg).digest())
+ return tob('!') + sig + tob('?') + msg
+
+
+def cookie_decode(data, key):
+ ''' Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None.'''
+ data = tob(data)
+ if cookie_is_encoded(data):
+ sig, msg = data.split(tob('?'), 1)
+ if _lscmp(sig[1:], base64.b64encode(hmac.new(tob(key), msg).digest())):
+ return pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
+ return None
+
+
+def cookie_is_encoded(data):
+ ''' Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.'''
+ return bool(data.startswith(tob('!')) and tob('?') in data)
+
+
+def html_escape(string):
+ ''' Escape HTML special characters ``&<>`` and quotes ``'"``. '''
+ return string.replace('&','&amp;').replace('<','&lt;').replace('>','&gt;')\
+ .replace('"','&quot;').replace("'",'&#039;')
+
+
+def html_quote(string):
+ ''' Escape and quote a string to be used as an HTTP attribute.'''
+ return '"%s"' % html_escape(string).replace('\n','&#10;')\
+ .replace('\r','&#13;').replace('\t','&#9;')
+
+
+def yieldroutes(func):
+ """ Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args)
+ of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function
+ takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example::
+
+ a() -> '/a'
+ b(x, y) -> '/b/<x>/<y>'
+ c(x, y=5) -> '/c/<x>' and '/c/<x>/<y>'
+ d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/<x>' and '/d/<x>/<y>'
+ """
+ path = '/' + func.__name__.replace('__','/').lstrip('/')
+ spec = getargspec(func)
+ argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or [])
+ path += ('/<%s>' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc])
+ yield path
+ for arg in spec[0][argc:]:
+ path += '/<%s>' % arg
+ yield path
+
+
+def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1):
+ ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
+
+ :return: The modified paths.
+ :param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path.
+ :param script_name: The PATH_INFO path.
+ :param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to
+ change the shift direction. (default: 1)
+ '''
+ if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info
+ pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/')
+ scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/')
+ if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = []
+ if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = []
+ if shift > 0 and shift <= len(pathlist):
+ moved = pathlist[:shift]
+ scriptlist = scriptlist + moved
+ pathlist = pathlist[shift:]
+ elif shift < 0 and shift >= -len(scriptlist):
+ moved = scriptlist[shift:]
+ pathlist = moved + pathlist
+ scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift]
+ else:
+ empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO'
+ raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty)
+ new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist)
+ new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist)
+ if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/'
+ return new_script_name, new_path_info
+
+
+def auth_basic(check, realm="private", text="Access denied"):
+ ''' Callback decorator to require HTTP auth (basic).
+ TODO: Add route(check_auth=...) parameter. '''
+ def decorator(func):
+ def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+ user, password = request.auth or (None, None)
+ if user is None or not check(user, password):
+ err = HTTPError(401, text)
+ err.add_header('WWW-Authenticate', 'Basic realm="%s"' % realm)
+ return err
+ return func(*a, **ka)
+ return wrapper
+ return decorator
+
+
+# Shortcuts for common Bottle methods.
+# They all refer to the current default application.
+
+def make_default_app_wrapper(name):
+ ''' Return a callable that relays calls to the current default app. '''
+ @functools.wraps(getattr(Bottle, name))
+ def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+ return getattr(app(), name)(*a, **ka)
+ return wrapper
+
+route = make_default_app_wrapper('route')
+get = make_default_app_wrapper('get')
+post = make_default_app_wrapper('post')
+put = make_default_app_wrapper('put')
+delete = make_default_app_wrapper('delete')
+error = make_default_app_wrapper('error')
+mount = make_default_app_wrapper('mount')
+hook = make_default_app_wrapper('hook')
+install = make_default_app_wrapper('install')
+uninstall = make_default_app_wrapper('uninstall')
+url = make_default_app_wrapper('get_url')
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Server Adapter ###############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class ServerAdapter(object):
+ quiet = False
+ def __init__(self, host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, **options):
+ self.options = options
+ self.host = host
+ self.port = int(port)
+
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ pass
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()])
+ return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)
+
+
+class CGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+ quiet = True
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from wsgiref.handlers import CGIHandler
+ def fixed_environ(environ, start_response):
+ environ.setdefault('PATH_INFO', '')
+ return handler(environ, start_response)
+ CGIHandler().run(fixed_environ)
+
+
+class FlupFCGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import flup.server.fcgi
+ self.options.setdefault('bindAddress', (self.host, self.port))
+ flup.server.fcgi.WSGIServer(handler, **self.options).run()
+
+
+class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, app): # pragma: no cover
+ from wsgiref.simple_server import WSGIRequestHandler, WSGIServer
+ from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
+ import socket
+
+ class FixedHandler(WSGIRequestHandler):
+ def address_string(self): # Prevent reverse DNS lookups please.
+ return self.client_address[0]
+ def log_request(*args, **kw):
+ if not self.quiet:
+ return WSGIRequestHandler.log_request(*args, **kw)
+
+ handler_cls = self.options.get('handler_class', FixedHandler)
+ server_cls = self.options.get('server_class', WSGIServer)
+
+ if ':' in self.host: # Fix wsgiref for IPv6 addresses.
+ if getattr(server_cls, 'address_family') == socket.AF_INET:
+ class server_cls(server_cls):
+ address_family = socket.AF_INET6
+
+ srv = make_server(self.host, self.port, app, server_cls, handler_cls)
+ srv.serve_forever()
+
+
+class CherryPyServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from cherrypy import wsgiserver
+ self.options['bind_addr'] = (self.host, self.port)
+ self.options['wsgi_app'] = handler
+
+ certfile = self.options.get('certfile')
+ if certfile:
+ del self.options['certfile']
+ keyfile = self.options.get('keyfile')
+ if keyfile:
+ del self.options['keyfile']
+
+ server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer(**self.options)
+ if certfile:
+ server.ssl_certificate = certfile
+ if keyfile:
+ server.ssl_private_key = keyfile
+
+ try:
+ server.start()
+ finally:
+ server.stop()
+
+
+class WaitressServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from waitress import serve
+ serve(handler, host=self.host, port=self.port)
+
+
+class PasteServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from paste import httpserver
+ from paste.translogger import TransLogger
+ handler = TransLogger(handler, setup_console_handler=(not self.quiet))
+ httpserver.serve(handler, host=self.host, port=str(self.port),
+ **self.options)
+
+
+class MeinheldServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from meinheld import server
+ server.listen((self.host, self.port))
+ server.run(handler)
+
+
+class FapwsServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Extremely fast webserver using libev. See http://www.fapws.org/ """
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import fapws._evwsgi as evwsgi
+ from fapws import base, config
+ port = self.port
+ if float(config.SERVER_IDENT[-2:]) > 0.4:
+ # fapws3 silently changed its API in 0.5
+ port = str(port)
+ evwsgi.start(self.host, port)
+ # fapws3 never releases the GIL. Complain upstream. I tried. No luck.
+ if 'BOTTLE_CHILD' in os.environ and not self.quiet:
+ _stderr("WARNING: Auto-reloading does not work with Fapws3.\n")
+ _stderr(" (Fapws3 breaks python thread support)\n")
+ evwsgi.set_base_module(base)
+ def app(environ, start_response):
+ environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = False
+ return handler(environ, start_response)
+ evwsgi.wsgi_cb(('', app))
+ evwsgi.run()
+
+
+class TornadoServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ The super hyped asynchronous server by facebook. Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import tornado.wsgi, tornado.httpserver, tornado.ioloop
+ container = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(handler)
+ server = tornado.httpserver.HTTPServer(container)
+ server.listen(port=self.port,address=self.host)
+ tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()
+
+
+class AppEngineServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Adapter for Google App Engine. """
+ quiet = True
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from google.appengine.ext.webapp import util
+ # A main() function in the handler script enables 'App Caching'.
+ # Lets makes sure it is there. This _really_ improves performance.
+ module = sys.modules.get('__main__')
+ if module and not hasattr(module, 'main'):
+ module.main = lambda: util.run_wsgi_app(handler)
+ util.run_wsgi_app(handler)
+
+
+class TwistedServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from twisted.web import server, wsgi
+ from twisted.python.threadpool import ThreadPool
+ from twisted.internet import reactor
+ thread_pool = ThreadPool()
+ thread_pool.start()
+ reactor.addSystemEventTrigger('after', 'shutdown', thread_pool.stop)
+ factory = server.Site(wsgi.WSGIResource(reactor, thread_pool, handler))
+ reactor.listenTCP(self.port, factory, interface=self.host)
+ reactor.run()
+
+
+class DieselServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from diesel.protocols.wsgi import WSGIApplication
+ app = WSGIApplication(handler, port=self.port)
+ app.run()
+
+
+class GeventServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. Options:
+
+ * `fast` (default: False) uses libevent's http server, but has some
+ issues: No streaming, no pipelining, no SSL.
+ * See gevent.wsgi.WSGIServer() documentation for more options.
+ """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from gevent import wsgi, pywsgi, local
+ if not isinstance(threading.local(), local.local):
+ msg = "Bottle requires gevent.monkey.patch_all() (before import)"
+ raise RuntimeError(msg)
+ if not self.options.pop('fast', None): wsgi = pywsgi
+ self.options['log'] = None if self.quiet else 'default'
+ address = (self.host, self.port)
+ server = wsgi.WSGIServer(address, handler, **self.options)
+ if 'BOTTLE_CHILD' in os.environ:
+ import signal
+ signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, lambda s, f: server.stop())
+ server.serve_forever()
+
+
+class GeventSocketIOServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self,handler):
+ from socketio import server
+ address = (self.host, self.port)
+ server.SocketIOServer(address, handler, **self.options).serve_forever()
+
+
+class GunicornServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. See http://gunicorn.org/configure.html for options. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from gunicorn.app.base import Application
+
+ config = {'bind': "%s:%d" % (self.host, int(self.port))}
+ config.update(self.options)
+
+ class GunicornApplication(Application):
+ def init(self, parser, opts, args):
+ return config
+
+ def load(self):
+ return handler
+
+ GunicornApplication().run()
+
+
+class EventletServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from eventlet import wsgi, listen
+ try:
+ wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler,
+ log_output=(not self.quiet))
+ except TypeError:
+ # Fallback, if we have old version of eventlet
+ wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler)
+
+
+class RocketServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from rocket import Rocket
+ server = Rocket((self.host, self.port), 'wsgi', { 'wsgi_app' : handler })
+ server.start()
+
+
+class BjoernServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Fast server written in C: https://github.com/jonashaag/bjoern """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from bjoern import run
+ run(handler, self.host, self.port)
+
+
+class AutoServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ adapters = [WaitressServer, PasteServer, TwistedServer, CherryPyServer, WSGIRefServer]
+ def run(self, handler):
+ for sa in self.adapters:
+ try:
+ return sa(self.host, self.port, **self.options).run(handler)
+ except ImportError:
+ pass
+
+server_names = {
+ 'cgi': CGIServer,
+ 'flup': FlupFCGIServer,
+ 'wsgiref': WSGIRefServer,
+ 'waitress': WaitressServer,
+ 'cherrypy': CherryPyServer,
+ 'paste': PasteServer,
+ 'fapws3': FapwsServer,
+ 'tornado': TornadoServer,
+ 'gae': AppEngineServer,
+ 'twisted': TwistedServer,
+ 'diesel': DieselServer,
+ 'meinheld': MeinheldServer,
+ 'gunicorn': GunicornServer,
+ 'eventlet': EventletServer,
+ 'gevent': GeventServer,
+ 'geventSocketIO':GeventSocketIOServer,
+ 'rocket': RocketServer,
+ 'bjoern' : BjoernServer,
+ 'auto': AutoServer,
+}
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Control ##########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def load(target, **namespace):
+ """ Import a module or fetch an object from a module.
+
+ * ``package.module`` returns `module` as a module object.
+ * ``pack.mod:name`` returns the module variable `name` from `pack.mod`.
+ * ``pack.mod:func()`` calls `pack.mod.func()` and returns the result.
+
+ The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of
+ expression. Keyword arguments passed to this function are available as
+ local variables. Example: ``import_string('re:compile(x)', x='[a-z]')``
+ """
+ module, target = target.split(":", 1) if ':' in target else (target, None)
+ if module not in sys.modules: __import__(module)
+ if not target: return sys.modules[module]
+ if target.isalnum(): return getattr(sys.modules[module], target)
+ package_name = module.split('.')[0]
+ namespace[package_name] = sys.modules[package_name]
+ return eval('%s.%s' % (module, target), namespace)
+
+
+def load_app(target):
+ """ Load a bottle application from a module and make sure that the import
+ does not affect the current default application, but returns a separate
+ application object. See :func:`load` for the target parameter. """
+ global NORUN; NORUN, nr_old = True, NORUN
+ try:
+ tmp = default_app.push() # Create a new "default application"
+ rv = load(target) # Import the target module
+ return rv if callable(rv) else tmp
+ finally:
+ default_app.remove(tmp) # Remove the temporary added default application
+ NORUN = nr_old
+
+_debug = debug
+def run(app=None, server='wsgiref', host='127.0.0.1', port=8080,
+ interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, plugins=None,
+ debug=None, **kargs):
+ """ Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates.
+
+ :param app: WSGI application or target string supported by
+ :func:`load_app`. (default: :func:`default_app`)
+ :param server: Server adapter to use. See :data:`server_names` keys
+ for valid names or pass a :class:`ServerAdapter` subclass.
+ (default: `wsgiref`)
+ :param host: Server address to bind to. Pass ``0.0.0.0`` to listens on
+ all interfaces including the external one. (default: 127.0.0.1)
+ :param port: Server port to bind to. Values below 1024 require root
+ privileges. (default: 8080)
+ :param reloader: Start auto-reloading server? (default: False)
+ :param interval: Auto-reloader interval in seconds (default: 1)
+ :param quiet: Suppress output to stdout and stderr? (default: False)
+ :param options: Options passed to the server adapter.
+ """
+ if NORUN: return
+ if reloader and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
+ try:
+ lockfile = None
+ fd, lockfile = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='bottle.', suffix='.lock')
+ os.close(fd) # We only need this file to exist. We never write to it
+ while os.path.exists(lockfile):
+ args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv
+ environ = os.environ.copy()
+ environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true'
+ environ['BOTTLE_LOCKFILE'] = lockfile
+ p = subprocess.Popen(args, env=environ)
+ while p.poll() is None: # Busy wait...
+ os.utime(lockfile, None) # I am alive!
+ time.sleep(interval)
+ if p.poll() != 3:
+ if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
+ sys.exit(p.poll())
+ except KeyboardInterrupt:
+ pass
+ finally:
+ if os.path.exists(lockfile):
+ os.unlink(lockfile)
+ return
+
+ try:
+ if debug is not None: _debug(debug)
+ app = app or default_app()
+ if isinstance(app, basestring):
+ app = load_app(app)
+ if not callable(app):
+ raise ValueError("Application is not callable: %r" % app)
+
+ for plugin in plugins or []:
+ app.install(plugin)
+
+ if server in server_names:
+ server = server_names.get(server)
+ if isinstance(server, basestring):
+ server = load(server)
+ if isinstance(server, type):
+ server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs)
+ if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter):
+ raise ValueError("Unknown or unsupported server: %r" % server)
+
+ server.quiet = server.quiet or quiet
+ if not server.quiet:
+ _stderr("Bottle v%s server starting up (using %s)...\n" % (__version__, repr(server)))
+ _stderr("Listening on http://%s:%d/\n" % (server.host, server.port))
+ _stderr("Hit Ctrl-C to quit.\n\n")
+
+ if reloader:
+ lockfile = os.environ.get('BOTTLE_LOCKFILE')
+ bgcheck = FileCheckerThread(lockfile, interval)
+ with bgcheck:
+ server.run(app)
+ if bgcheck.status == 'reload':
+ sys.exit(3)
+ else:
+ server.run(app)
+ except KeyboardInterrupt:
+ pass
+ except (SystemExit, MemoryError):
+ raise
+ except:
+ if not reloader: raise
+ if not getattr(server, 'quiet', quiet):
+ print_exc()
+ time.sleep(interval)
+ sys.exit(3)
+
+
+
+class FileCheckerThread(threading.Thread):
+ ''' Interrupt main-thread as soon as a changed module file is detected,
+ the lockfile gets deleted or gets to old. '''
+
+ def __init__(self, lockfile, interval):
+ threading.Thread.__init__(self)
+ self.lockfile, self.interval = lockfile, interval
+ #: Is one of 'reload', 'error' or 'exit'
+ self.status = None
+
+ def run(self):
+ exists = os.path.exists
+ mtime = lambda path: os.stat(path).st_mtime
+ files = dict()
+
+ for module in list(sys.modules.values()):
+ path = getattr(module, '__file__', '')
+ if path[-4:] in ('.pyo', '.pyc'): path = path[:-1]
+ if path and exists(path): files[path] = mtime(path)
+
+ while not self.status:
+ if not exists(self.lockfile)\
+ or mtime(self.lockfile) < time.time() - self.interval - 5:
+ self.status = 'error'
+ thread.interrupt_main()
+ for path, lmtime in list(files.items()):
+ if not exists(path) or mtime(path) > lmtime:
+ self.status = 'reload'
+ thread.interrupt_main()
+ break
+ time.sleep(self.interval)
+
+ def __enter__(self):
+ self.start()
+
+ def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
+ if not self.status: self.status = 'exit' # silent exit
+ self.join()
+ return exc_type is not None and issubclass(exc_type, KeyboardInterrupt)
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Template Adapters ############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class TemplateError(HTTPError):
+ def __init__(self, message):
+ HTTPError.__init__(self, 500, message)
+
+
+class BaseTemplate(object):
+ """ Base class and minimal API for template adapters """
+ extensions = ['tpl','html','thtml','stpl']
+ settings = {} #used in prepare()
+ defaults = {} #used in render()
+
+ def __init__(self, source=None, name=None, lookup=[], encoding='utf8', **settings):
+ """ Create a new template.
+ If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument
+ is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that
+ self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings.
+ The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance
+ variables.
+ The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths.
+ The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files.
+ The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.
+ """
+ self.name = name
+ self.source = source.read() if hasattr(source, 'read') else source
+ self.filename = source.filename if hasattr(source, 'filename') else None
+ self.lookup = [os.path.abspath(x) for x in lookup]
+ self.encoding = encoding
+ self.settings = self.settings.copy() # Copy from class variable
+ self.settings.update(settings) # Apply
+ if not self.source and self.name:
+ self.filename = self.search(self.name, self.lookup)
+ if not self.filename:
+ raise TemplateError('Template %s not found.' % repr(name))
+ if not self.source and not self.filename:
+ raise TemplateError('No template specified.')
+ self.prepare(**self.settings)
+
+ @classmethod
+ def search(cls, name, lookup=[]):
+ """ Search name in all directories specified in lookup.
+ First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit. """
+ if not lookup:
+ depr('The template lookup path list should not be empty.') #0.12
+ lookup = ['.']
+
+ if os.path.isabs(name) and os.path.isfile(name):
+ depr('Absolute template path names are deprecated.') #0.12
+ return os.path.abspath(name)
+
+ for spath in lookup:
+ spath = os.path.abspath(spath) + os.sep
+ fname = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(spath, name))
+ if not fname.startswith(spath): continue
+ if os.path.isfile(fname): return fname
+ for ext in cls.extensions:
+ if os.path.isfile('%s.%s' % (fname, ext)):
+ return '%s.%s' % (fname, ext)
+
+ @classmethod
+ def global_config(cls, key, *args):
+ ''' This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings. '''
+ if args:
+ cls.settings = cls.settings.copy() # Make settings local to class
+ cls.settings[key] = args[0]
+ else:
+ return cls.settings[key]
+
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ """ Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...).
+ It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to
+ update settings.
+ """
+ raise NotImplementedError
+
+ def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ """ Render the template with the specified local variables and return
+ a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding
+ must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe!
+ Local variables may be provided in dictionaries (args)
+ or directly, as keywords (kwargs).
+ """
+ raise NotImplementedError
+
+
+class MakoTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ from mako.template import Template
+ from mako.lookup import TemplateLookup
+ options.update({'input_encoding':self.encoding})
+ options.setdefault('format_exceptions', bool(DEBUG))
+ lookup = TemplateLookup(directories=self.lookup, **options)
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = Template(self.source, lookup=lookup, **options)
+ else:
+ self.tpl = Template(uri=self.name, filename=self.filename, lookup=lookup, **options)
+
+ def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+ _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+ _defaults.update(kwargs)
+ return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
+
+
+class CheetahTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ from Cheetah.Template import Template
+ self.context = threading.local()
+ self.context.vars = {}
+ options['searchList'] = [self.context.vars]
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = Template(source=self.source, **options)
+ else:
+ self.tpl = Template(file=self.filename, **options)
+
+ def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+ self.context.vars.update(self.defaults)
+ self.context.vars.update(kwargs)
+ out = str(self.tpl)
+ self.context.vars.clear()
+ return out
+
+
+class Jinja2Template(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, filters=None, tests=None, globals={}, **kwargs):
+ from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader
+ if 'prefix' in kwargs: # TODO: to be removed after a while
+ raise RuntimeError('The keyword argument `prefix` has been removed. '
+ 'Use the full jinja2 environment name line_statement_prefix instead.')
+ self.env = Environment(loader=FunctionLoader(self.loader), **kwargs)
+ if filters: self.env.filters.update(filters)
+ if tests: self.env.tests.update(tests)
+ if globals: self.env.globals.update(globals)
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = self.env.from_string(self.source)
+ else:
+ self.tpl = self.env.get_template(self.filename)
+
+ def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+ _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+ _defaults.update(kwargs)
+ return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
+
+ def loader(self, name):
+ fname = self.search(name, self.lookup)
+ if not fname: return
+ with open(fname, "rb") as f:
+ return f.read().decode(self.encoding)
+
+
+class SimpleTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+
+ def prepare(self, escape_func=html_escape, noescape=False, syntax=None, **ka):
+ self.cache = {}
+ enc = self.encoding
+ self._str = lambda x: touni(x, enc)
+ self._escape = lambda x: escape_func(touni(x, enc))
+ self.syntax = syntax
+ if noescape:
+ self._str, self._escape = self._escape, self._str
+
+ @cached_property
+ def co(self):
+ return compile(self.code, self.filename or '<string>', 'exec')
+
+ @cached_property
+ def code(self):
+ source = self.source
+ if not source:
+ with open(self.filename, 'rb') as f:
+ source = f.read()
+ try:
+ source, encoding = touni(source), 'utf8'
+ except UnicodeError:
+ depr('Template encodings other than utf8 are no longer supported.') #0.11
+ source, encoding = touni(source, 'latin1'), 'latin1'
+ parser = StplParser(source, encoding=encoding, syntax=self.syntax)
+ code = parser.translate()
+ self.encoding = parser.encoding
+ return code
+
+ def _rebase(self, _env, _name=None, **kwargs):
+ if _name is None:
+ depr('Rebase function called without arguments.'
+ ' You were probably looking for {{base}}?', True) #0.12
+ _env['_rebase'] = (_name, kwargs)
+
+ def _include(self, _env, _name=None, **kwargs):
+ if _name is None:
+ depr('Rebase function called without arguments.'
+ ' You were probably looking for {{base}}?', True) #0.12
+ env = _env.copy()
+ env.update(kwargs)
+ if _name not in self.cache:
+ self.cache[_name] = self.__class__(name=_name, lookup=self.lookup)
+ return self.cache[_name].execute(env['_stdout'], env)
+
+ def execute(self, _stdout, kwargs):
+ env = self.defaults.copy()
+ env.update(kwargs)
+ env.update({'_stdout': _stdout, '_printlist': _stdout.extend,
+ 'include': functools.partial(self._include, env),
+ 'rebase': functools.partial(self._rebase, env), '_rebase': None,
+ '_str': self._str, '_escape': self._escape, 'get': env.get,
+ 'setdefault': env.setdefault, 'defined': env.__contains__ })
+ eval(self.co, env)
+ if env.get('_rebase'):
+ subtpl, rargs = env.pop('_rebase')
+ rargs['base'] = ''.join(_stdout) #copy stdout
+ del _stdout[:] # clear stdout
+ return self._include(env, subtpl, **rargs)
+ return env
+
+ def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ """ Render the template using keyword arguments as local variables. """
+ env = {}; stdout = []
+ for dictarg in args: env.update(dictarg)
+ env.update(kwargs)
+ self.execute(stdout, env)
+ return ''.join(stdout)
+
+
+class StplSyntaxError(TemplateError): pass
+
+
+class StplParser(object):
+ ''' Parser for stpl templates. '''
+ _re_cache = {} #: Cache for compiled re patterns
+ # This huge pile of voodoo magic splits python code into 8 different tokens.
+ # 1: All kinds of python strings (trust me, it works)
+ _re_tok = '((?m)[urbURB]?(?:\'\'(?!\')|""(?!")|\'{6}|"{6}' \
+ '|\'(?:[^\\\\\']|\\\\.)+?\'|"(?:[^\\\\"]|\\\\.)+?"' \
+ '|\'{3}(?:[^\\\\]|\\\\.|\\n)+?\'{3}' \
+ '|"{3}(?:[^\\\\]|\\\\.|\\n)+?"{3}))'
+ _re_inl = _re_tok.replace('|\\n','') # We re-use this string pattern later
+ # 2: Comments (until end of line, but not the newline itself)
+ _re_tok += '|(#.*)'
+ # 3,4: Keywords that start or continue a python block (only start of line)
+ _re_tok += '|^([ \\t]*(?:if|for|while|with|try|def|class)\\b)' \
+ '|^([ \\t]*(?:elif|else|except|finally)\\b)'
+ # 5: Our special 'end' keyword (but only if it stands alone)
+ _re_tok += '|((?:^|;)[ \\t]*end[ \\t]*(?=(?:%(block_close)s[ \\t]*)?\\r?$|;|#))'
+ # 6: A customizable end-of-code-block template token (only end of line)
+ _re_tok += '|(%(block_close)s[ \\t]*(?=$))'
+ # 7: And finally, a single newline. The 8th token is 'everything else'
+ _re_tok += '|(\\r?\\n)'
+ # Match the start tokens of code areas in a template
+ _re_split = '(?m)^[ \t]*(\\\\?)((%(line_start)s)|(%(block_start)s))(%%?)'
+ # Match inline statements (may contain python strings)
+ _re_inl = '%%(inline_start)s((?:%s|[^\'"\n]*?)+)%%(inline_end)s' % _re_inl
+
+ default_syntax = '<% %> % {{ }}'
+
+ def __init__(self, source, syntax=None, encoding='utf8'):
+ self.source, self.encoding = touni(source, encoding), encoding
+ self.set_syntax(syntax or self.default_syntax)
+ self.code_buffer, self.text_buffer = [], []
+ self.lineno, self.offset = 1, 0
+ self.indent, self.indent_mod = 0, 0
+
+ def get_syntax(self):
+ ''' Tokens as a space separated string (default: <% %> % {{ }}) '''
+ return self._syntax
+
+ def set_syntax(self, syntax):
+ self._syntax = syntax
+ self._tokens = syntax.split()
+ if not syntax in self._re_cache:
+ names = 'block_start block_close line_start inline_start inline_end'
+ etokens = map(re.escape, self._tokens)
+ pattern_vars = dict(zip(names.split(), etokens))
+ patterns = (self._re_split, self._re_tok, self._re_inl)
+ patterns = [re.compile(p%pattern_vars) for p in patterns]
+ self._re_cache[syntax] = patterns
+ self.re_split, self.re_tok, self.re_inl = self._re_cache[syntax]
+
+ syntax = property(get_syntax, set_syntax)
+
+ def translate(self):
+ if self.offset: raise RuntimeError('Parser is a one time instance.')
+ while True:
+ m = self.re_split.search(self.source[self.offset:])
+ if m:
+ text = self.source[self.offset:self.offset+m.start()]
+ self.text_buffer.append(text)
+ self.offset += m.end()
+ if m.group(1): # New escape syntax
+ line, sep, _ = self.source[self.offset:].partition('\n')
+ self.text_buffer.append(m.group(2)+m.group(5)+line+sep)
+ self.offset += len(line+sep)+1
+ continue
+ elif m.group(5): # Old escape syntax
+ depr('Escape code lines with a backslash.') #0.12
+ line, sep, _ = self.source[self.offset:].partition('\n')
+ self.text_buffer.append(m.group(2)+line+sep)
+ self.offset += len(line+sep)+1
+ continue
+ self.flush_text()
+ self.read_code(multiline=bool(m.group(4)))
+ else: break
+ self.text_buffer.append(self.source[self.offset:])
+ self.flush_text()
+ return ''.join(self.code_buffer)
+
+ def read_code(self, multiline):
+ code_line, comment = '', ''
+ while True:
+ m = self.re_tok.search(self.source[self.offset:])
+ if not m:
+ code_line += self.source[self.offset:]
+ self.offset = len(self.source)
+ self.write_code(code_line.strip(), comment)
+ return
+ code_line += self.source[self.offset:self.offset+m.start()]
+ self.offset += m.end()
+ _str, _com, _blk1, _blk2, _end, _cend, _nl = m.groups()
+ if code_line and (_blk1 or _blk2): # a if b else c
+ code_line += _blk1 or _blk2
+ continue
+ if _str: # Python string
+ code_line += _str
+ elif _com: # Python comment (up to EOL)
+ comment = _com
+ if multiline and _com.strip().endswith(self._tokens[1]):
+ multiline = False # Allow end-of-block in comments
+ elif _blk1: # Start-block keyword (if/for/while/def/try/...)
+ code_line, self.indent_mod = _blk1, -1
+ self.indent += 1
+ elif _blk2: # Continue-block keyword (else/elif/except/...)
+ code_line, self.indent_mod = _blk2, -1
+ elif _end: # The non-standard 'end'-keyword (ends a block)
+ self.indent -= 1
+ elif _cend: # The end-code-block template token (usually '%>')
+ if multiline: multiline = False
+ else: code_line += _cend
+ else: # \n
+ self.write_code(code_line.strip(), comment)
+ self.lineno += 1
+ code_line, comment, self.indent_mod = '', '', 0
+ if not multiline:
+ break
+
+ def flush_text(self):
+ text = ''.join(self.text_buffer)
+ del self.text_buffer[:]
+ if not text: return
+ parts, pos, nl = [], 0, '\\\n'+' '*self.indent
+ for m in self.re_inl.finditer(text):
+ prefix, pos = text[pos:m.start()], m.end()
+ if prefix:
+ parts.append(nl.join(map(repr, prefix.splitlines(True))))
+ if prefix.endswith('\n'): parts[-1] += nl
+ parts.append(self.process_inline(m.group(1).strip()))
+ if pos < len(text):
+ prefix = text[pos:]
+ lines = prefix.splitlines(True)
+ if lines[-1].endswith('\\\\\n'): lines[-1] = lines[-1][:-3]
+ elif lines[-1].endswith('\\\\\r\n'): lines[-1] = lines[-1][:-4]
+ parts.append(nl.join(map(repr, lines)))
+ code = '_printlist((%s,))' % ', '.join(parts)
+ self.lineno += code.count('\n')+1
+ self.write_code(code)
+
+ def process_inline(self, chunk):
+ if chunk[0] == '!': return '_str(%s)' % chunk[1:]
+ return '_escape(%s)' % chunk
+
+ def write_code(self, line, comment=''):
+ line, comment = self.fix_backward_compatibility(line, comment)
+ code = ' ' * (self.indent+self.indent_mod)
+ code += line.lstrip() + comment + '\n'
+ self.code_buffer.append(code)
+
+ def fix_backward_compatibility(self, line, comment):
+ parts = line.strip().split(None, 2)
+ if parts and parts[0] in ('include', 'rebase'):
+ depr('The include and rebase keywords are functions now.') #0.12
+ if len(parts) == 1: return "_printlist([base])", comment
+ elif len(parts) == 2: return "_=%s(%r)" % tuple(parts), comment
+ else: return "_=%s(%r, %s)" % tuple(parts), comment
+ if self.lineno <= 2 and not line.strip() and 'coding' in comment:
+ m = re.match(r"#.*coding[:=]\s*([-\w.]+)", comment)
+ if m:
+ depr('PEP263 encoding strings in templates are deprecated.') #0.12
+ enc = m.group(1)
+ self.source = self.source.encode(self.encoding).decode(enc)
+ self.encoding = enc
+ return line, comment.replace('coding','coding*')
+ return line, comment
+
+
+def template(*args, **kwargs):
+ '''
+ Get a rendered template as a string iterator.
+ You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter.
+ Template rendering arguments can be passed as dictionaries
+ or directly (as keyword arguments).
+ '''
+ tpl = args[0] if args else None
+ adapter = kwargs.pop('template_adapter', SimpleTemplate)
+ lookup = kwargs.pop('template_lookup', TEMPLATE_PATH)
+ tplid = (id(lookup), tpl)
+ if tplid not in TEMPLATES or DEBUG:
+ settings = kwargs.pop('template_settings', {})
+ if isinstance(tpl, adapter):
+ TEMPLATES[tplid] = tpl
+ if settings: TEMPLATES[tplid].prepare(**settings)
+ elif "\n" in tpl or "{" in tpl or "%" in tpl or '$' in tpl:
+ TEMPLATES[tplid] = adapter(source=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+ else:
+ TEMPLATES[tplid] = adapter(name=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+ if not TEMPLATES[tplid]:
+ abort(500, 'Template (%s) not found' % tpl)
+ for dictarg in args[1:]: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+ return TEMPLATES[tplid].render(kwargs)
+
+mako_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
+cheetah_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
+jinja2_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
+
+
+def view(tpl_name, **defaults):
+ ''' Decorator: renders a template for a handler.
+ The handler can control its behavior like that:
+
+ - return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
+ - return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not
+ process the template, but return the handler result as is.
+ This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get,
+ for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters.
+ '''
+ def decorator(func):
+ @functools.wraps(func)
+ def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
+ result = func(*args, **kwargs)
+ if isinstance(result, (dict, DictMixin)):
+ tplvars = defaults.copy()
+ tplvars.update(result)
+ return template(tpl_name, **tplvars)
+ elif result is None:
+ return template(tpl_name, defaults)
+ return result
+ return wrapper
+ return decorator
+
+mako_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
+cheetah_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
+jinja2_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Constants and Globals ########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+TEMPLATE_PATH = ['./', './views/']
+TEMPLATES = {}
+DEBUG = False
+NORUN = False # If set, run() does nothing. Used by load_app()
+
+#: A dict to map HTTP status codes (e.g. 404) to phrases (e.g. 'Not Found')
+HTTP_CODES = httplib.responses
+HTTP_CODES[418] = "I'm a teapot" # RFC 2324
+HTTP_CODES[422] = "Unprocessable Entity" # RFC 4918
+HTTP_CODES[428] = "Precondition Required"
+HTTP_CODES[429] = "Too Many Requests"
+HTTP_CODES[431] = "Request Header Fields Too Large"
+HTTP_CODES[511] = "Network Authentication Required"
+_HTTP_STATUS_LINES = dict((k, '%d %s'%(k,v)) for (k,v) in HTTP_CODES.items())
+
+#: The default template used for error pages. Override with @error()
+ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE = """
+%%try:
+ %%from %s import DEBUG, HTTP_CODES, request, touni
+ <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
+ <html>
+ <head>
+ <title>Error: {{e.status}}</title>
+ <style type="text/css">
+ html {background-color: #eee; font-family: sans;}
+ body {background-color: #fff; border: 1px solid #ddd;
+ padding: 15px; margin: 15px;}
+ pre {background-color: #eee; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 5px;}
+ </style>
+ </head>
+ <body>
+ <h1>Error: {{e.status}}</h1>
+ <p>Sorry, the requested URL <tt>{{repr(request.url)}}</tt>
+ caused an error:</p>
+ <pre>{{e.body}}</pre>
+ %%if DEBUG and e.exception:
+ <h2>Exception:</h2>
+ <pre>{{repr(e.exception)}}</pre>
+ %%end
+ %%if DEBUG and e.traceback:
+ <h2>Traceback:</h2>
+ <pre>{{e.traceback}}</pre>
+ %%end
+ </body>
+ </html>
+%%except ImportError:
+ <b>ImportError:</b> Could not generate the error page. Please add bottle to
+ the import path.
+%%end
+""" % __name__
+
+#: A thread-safe instance of :class:`LocalRequest`. If accessed from within a
+#: request callback, this instance always refers to the *current* request
+#: (even on a multithreaded server).
+request = LocalRequest()
+
+#: A thread-safe instance of :class:`LocalResponse`. It is used to change the
+#: HTTP response for the *current* request.
+response = LocalResponse()
+
+#: A thread-safe namespace. Not used by Bottle.
+local = threading.local()
+
+# Initialize app stack (create first empty Bottle app)
+# BC: 0.6.4 and needed for run()
+app = default_app = AppStack()
+app.push()
+
+#: A virtual package that redirects import statements.
+#: Example: ``import bottle.ext.sqlite`` actually imports `bottle_sqlite`.
+ext = _ImportRedirect('bottle.ext' if __name__ == '__main__' else __name__+".ext", 'bottle_%s').module
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+ opt, args, parser = _cmd_options, _cmd_args, _cmd_parser
+ if opt.version:
+ _stdout('Bottle %s\n'%__version__)
+ sys.exit(0)
+ if not args:
+ parser.print_help()
+ _stderr('\nError: No application specified.\n')
+ sys.exit(1)
+
+ sys.path.insert(0, '.')
+ sys.modules.setdefault('bottle', sys.modules['__main__'])
+
+ host, port = (opt.bind or 'localhost'), 8080
+ if ':' in host and host.rfind(']') < host.rfind(':'):
+ host, port = host.rsplit(':', 1)
+ host = host.strip('[]')
+
+ run(args[0], host=host, port=int(port), server=opt.server,
+ reloader=opt.reload, plugins=opt.plugin, debug=opt.debug)
+
+
+
+
+# THE END